Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Effects and causes of cell phone Usage Among male

Abstract This Study will be carried out to establish the causes and effects of cell phone use among male students at Al Ittihad National School. It will specifically determine the various factors that may cause the use of cell phones among the male students, and how the use can affect the students in the several possible ways ranging from psychological to academic performance.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Effects and causes of cell phone Usage Among male specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The study was mainly encouraged by the recent rapid technological advance in the cell phone devices that has made them an integral part of the youth life. There are various features that have been incorporated on cell phone devices have created a near fanatical following among adolescents who are otherwise still struggling with self identity issues. Previous studies have shown that peer pressure and parental factors play a sign ificant role in the adoption of mobile phone devices by high school going children. Research on mobile phone usage among students has been ongoing for several years in other countries. Several studies have shown that mobile phones can have both positive and negative effects on students. Positive effects mainly come in the form of improved learning activities, whereby mobile phones can be utilized as tools to access the internet and facilitate the retrieval of learning materials, help organize class activities such as meetings and discussions, and coordinate study groups among the students (Zulkefly Baharudin, 2009). Cell phones can also help students to develop social by keeping in touch with their peers and parents. In addition, they enable students to guard themselves by providing a reliable means of soliciting for help during crisis situations. The negative effects associated with cell phones are many. Different studies analyzed in this paper indicate that cell phone use can be addictive and thus bring with it several psychological effects that affect the student’s performance (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006). The results of this study may confirm the findings of similar studies which have been carried out in other areas. Introduction Cell phones have evolved into important communication tools and therefore becoming an integral part of the society. Populations across the world, consisting of different age groups that include the youth are increasingly using cell phones to keep in touch with family, friends, colleagues and other acquaintances (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006).Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cell phones were first used in United Arab Emirates in 1998 and they were mainly in the hands of elites and professionals. This first generation communication devices were only equipped with basic communicat ion features such as voice calls and later text messages. Today, cell phone usage has spread among all members of the society including high school students and even pupils in several countries. The current mobile phone is equipped with features that allow more sophisticated communication and entertainment. This include multi media messages, MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3) player, games internet, videos and social network applications (Hakoama Hakoyama, 2011). The rapidly increasing technological advance in the cell phone industry has made mobile phones to be very attractive to the youth (Campbell, 2007). Therefore schools and other educational establishments have had a hard time trying to limit the influence of cell phones on their students (Hakoama Hakoyama, 2011). Several studies have indeed shown cell phones to be very popular among the youth, including high school students. Studies conducted in the UAE show that a large proportion of the youth and children own cell phones (Telecom munications Regulatory Authority, 2009). An ICT survey carried out in 2008 showed that up to 67% of students owned mobile phones in the United Arab Emirates (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, 2009). Initially, school policy was quite prohibitive as students were required to leave their phones at home, turn them of or keep them in the lockers (Zulkefly Baharudin, 2009). As time went by, schools began to change their policies to allow students to have limited access to mobile phones. The current use of cell phones by students mainly relates to personal and social purposes. The immense popularity of mobile phones among high school students in the UAE can be attributed to the popularity of prepaid subscriptions and the low cost of mobile handsets (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Effects and causes of cell phone Usage Among male specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn M ore Owning a cell phone has become a practical necessity, as well as a status symbol for young people who are, as always, struggling with peer pressure and conformity . Cell phones are very much viewed as a fashion accessory by different categories of youth in the UAE. Researches conducted in regard to the usage of mobile phones among the young generations have revealed that most of them take cell phones to be part and parcel of their daily lives. The increased attention of mobile phones among students has attracted massive research by scholars who are trying to establish how cell phones have impacted on education (Thaden, 2009). The causes and potential effects of mobile use among high school students in the UAE necessitate more research. This research study will thus seek to establish the reasons why male students at the Al Ittihad National School use mobile phones and the effects that may be associated with the use. Al Ittihad National School is located in Abu Dhabi and is a pr ivate profit making K-10 school (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, 2009). The school offers a US curriculum and has both national and international students mainly from the US (Kolb, 2006). Statement of the problem/ research questions Problem statement Research on cell/mobile phone usage in high schools that has been carried out in other countries reveal positive and negative effects. Although the findings can be applied to have an idea regarding the situation in the UAE, there is a strong need for own research to be conducted so as to establish variations or other findings that may be specific to UAE students. Indeed previous research has shown that mobile phone usage can have both positive and negative effects to high school students. In UAE, more male students have access to mobile phones when compared to their female counterparts. It’s important to determine the specific reasons that cause high school students to use mobile phones and the various outcomes that may be associated with this use. The study will be carried out at Al Ittihad School and will specifically try to establish the causes and effects of mobile phone usage among male students.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research Questions What are the causes of mobile phone usage among male students at the Al Ittihad School? What are the effects of mobile phone usage among male students at the Al Ittihad School? Literature Review Causes of cell phone usage Cell phone use and addiction among young individuals may be explained using the psychological theory. Erikson described the adolescent stage as a period of identity searching (Campbell, 2007). Adolescents are always plagued by the experience of trying to understand who they are, the group they belong to and who they would like to be when they get older; they become excessively self conscious and pay much attention to what their peers think of them (Lie, 2004). Studies show that this situation makes them to be more vulnerable to trends that they consider fashionable such as newer and flashy technological devices. Mobile phones are equipped with different features that make them appeal to the young generation. Previous studies have shown that you ng cell phone users prefer to use text messaging as opposed to voice calls. This service may be preferred because it’s cheaper, quick and convenient (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). Most teenagers have been shown to use text messages so as to achieve a steady coordination between friends and family. The patterns of text messaging are thought to peak anywhere between ages sixteen and twenty four. Comparative studies carried out to contrast cell phone usage among Japanese and American adolescents showed that a large proportion (69%) of Japanese adolescents preferred to use their mobile phones for texting while up to 40% of the American adolescents favored the game features on their mobile phones (Campbell, 2007). The Japanese adolescents were also seen to prefer the MP3 features on their mobile phones as compared to other features (Campbell, 2007). Cell phones are designed to allow effective communication between individuals who are vast distances apar t. Adolescents primarily use the mobile phone to communicate to their family members and peers. Several studies have shown that the use of cell phones by teenagers or adolescents to contact their family members are more frequent compared to contacting friends. Communicating with family members is very important as it enables them to feel secure. This is due to the fact that family members are considered to be the most important people in their lives (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006). In addition, cell phones have been found to be very effective during emergency situations. Psychologists have identified cell phones to be vital tools of building family relationships as they enable family members to stay in touch even when they are far from one another. The ability of cell phones to offer communication between family members at any time and place makes them an effective replacement of physical contact. This way parents can remotely assist their children to carry out their responsibilities and reduce anxiety instances (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, 2009). Some Korean schools have begun to offer location monitoring services to help parents identify the location of their children via the cell phone. Apart from communicating with family members, adolescents use cell phones to regularly contact their peers for chat, gossip and share stories (Kolb, 2006). When used this way, cell phones act as effective tools of improving and maintaining social relationships. Through research, cell phone use has been linked to various factors. Previous studies have focused on factors such as sex, age and self esteem with mobile phone use (Zulkefly Baharudin, 2009). There is little research evidence that shows the relationship between cell phone uses by the younger generations and the age of the parents, education and family income. Male cell phone users are typically attracted by the technical applications and features such as games and MP3 player or vid eo player while females basically use mobile phones for socializing (Zulkefly Baharudin, 2009). Studies carried out since 2001 have established that young adult males spent more time on mobile phones as compared to girls (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006). This trend often begins in the late adolescent stage then peaks in the 20s. The high level use may extend to 30s after which it begins to drop significantly (Thaden, 2009). Researchers have also established that young mobile phone users usually spent appropriate amounts of money on prepaid services. Studies conducted in Europe showed that many of high school students used about 25 Euros a month on mobile phone credit (Wilknson, 2006). Effects of cell phone Usage Different studies have shown that younger mobile users are more likely to be addicted therefore they score high on Problem Mobile Phone Use Scale (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). Adolescents have been found to spend more time w ith mobile phones for social and emotional communication purposes. Some studies have shown that a significant number of high school students in the US play video games on their cell phones laptops during class time (Hakoama Hakoyama, 2011). However, it’s not clear if this affects academic performance. Studies carried out to identify the level of self esteem in relation to mobile phone use among adolescents has shown that those with low self esteem use mobile phones more than those with high self esteem (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). Individuals with low self esteem use mobile phones more frequently so as to get reassurance from other people. Some studies have used low self esteem to predict problems associated with mobile phone use. It has been shown that certain problems may arise due to intense use of the mobile phone device for communication purpose. Studies conducted in different countries such as Thailand, Korea and Norway have established th at students who involved themselves with intense mobile use were likely to suffer from psychological disturbances (Hakoama Hakoyama, 2011). A study carried out on 595 Korean students established that excessive use of mobile phone among students led to depression, higher interpersonal anxiety and lower self esteem (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). There are no studies that link these findings to the student’s academic performance. Use of cell phones by high school students also endangers their lives by making them to be suitable targets for robbers and muggers. Several robbery instances have reportedly involved the taking of a mobile phone. Many youths have reportedly died as a result of being knifed by muggers. Additionally, cell phones are also thought to increase bullying instances among adolescents (Zulkefly Baharudin, 2009). In other studies, cell phones have been reported to cause considerable disruption of class activities. A Virginia high sch ool reported that a student ordered for pizza during class time and did not see anything wrong with that (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). Other students have involved themselves in queer behaviors such as calling the principal’s home for more than six times in the middle of the night (Campbell, 2007). Studies carried out by psychologists have reported the ability of mobile phones to affect sleeping patterns among students, especially in addictive cases. Affected students are found to engage in excessive text messaging and often feel anxious when they do not receive replies. This usually takes place at night when they are supposed to be sleeping. Some scholars have compared internet use to pathological gambling as forms of behavioral addiction (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). Excessive use of cell phones may also be categorized as an addictive disorder. Cell phone ownership among students has been the subject of various ongoi ng researches, arguments and counter arguments. Some scholars have felt that students should be provided with cell phones so that they can use them in crisis situations (Kolb, 2006). Studies have also shown that students who lack phones may experience a negative feeling of being isolated. Other scholars have rejected phone ownership among students stating that they do not contribute to learning activities (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). Several researches have shown that cell phones can be useful gadgets for learning purposes. Internet supported mobile phones may be used to find definitions or reference data on the web. Mobile phones can also be used by students to connect with teachers and other students and help them deal with class attendance issues, rearrange meetings, retrieve assignment data, discuss assignments, coordinate study groups and seek academic help from teachers and other students (Hakoama Hakoyama, 2011). Conclusion And Recommendations C onclusions Just as seen in other studies carried out in various countries, this study will confirm that the use of mobile phone is widespread among male students attending Al Ittihad School. The study is expected to reveal that male students at the Al Ittihad School use their phones a bit reasonably and appropriately for sending text messages, calling and networking. The most applied functions of the mobile phone are likely to be SMS, social networking then voice calls. These findings should be consistent with those of studies carried out in other countries, especially in Asia. High school students are typically expected to prefer SMS to calls due to the fact that SMS are cheaper and majority of them have limited financial resources. This makes SMS to be the preferred mode of communication (Wilknson, 2006). Given the fact that majority of high school students are adolescents, they may be attracted to mobile phones due to features such as MMS, MP3 and video players and internet netwo rking applications such as facebook and twitter (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006). Previous research findings have shown that boys are more interested in the technological features of a phone as compared to girls. This study may also establish that male students at the Al Ittihad National School use mobile phones partly due to their advanced technological features which they may find fascinating. Personal and family factors may also contribute to the usage of phones by high school students. The study may reveal that students use their phones more to contact their peers rather than parents and/or teachers (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). Students in the adolescent category are generally unstable as they are transforming from children to adults. Mobile phone usage may be linked to levels of self esteem. Students with low self esteem are likely to be addicted to the mobile phone and thus present with various psychological disturbances. Case s of low or high self esteem are come individually and cannot be generalized on a group. In this study, some cases of low self esteem may be established together with the associated problematic mobile phone use. Students with a low self esteem will desire to seek reassurance from other people on regular basis and thus are likely to use their cell phones more (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006). Students who end up using their phones more than others are likely to progress into intense cell phone users. The current study is likely to establish that most male students at the Al Ittihad School get fascinated by features on their mobile phones and thus are likely to be more attracted and addicted to their cell phones (Zulkefly Baharudin, 2009). This may lead to behaviors associated with problematic cell phone behavior. Further studies into this area may reveal how self esteem and the frequency of mobile phone use can lead to change in social behaviors. By determining the effect of mobile phone usage among male students at the Al Ittihad School, one is likely to verify that intense use of mobile phones by students can lead to psychological problems (Campbell, 2007). Students who show with problematic cell phone use may have conditions such as anxiety, depression, or even lack of sleep, which is likely to affect their overall psychological functioning (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). The results of this study, if carried out, may concur with the findings of other studies which associate addictive cell phone usage with disorders such as lack of adequate sleep, which may impact a student’s psychological health. Findings of this such as study may as well reveal the advantages associated with cell phone use. For instance, they can enhance learning in various ways; cell phones can be used to surf the web and help students to identify important references or definitions, they also form an important link between them and their teachers or other students and this can help increase class attendance issues, scheduling of meetings, retrieving of assignment data and assisting coordination in study groups (Lie, 2004). The study may also establish some bad habits that may be associated with mobile phone use. Students can involve themselves in exam cheating by communicating with each other while doing tests or use web sources to help answer questions. The study may also reveal that phones cause significant disruption to class activities where some students may pick their phones or make calls during class time (Hakoama Hakoyama, 2011). It’s also important to note that though not many teenagers have access to cars, mobile phones can be a leading cause of death if they are used while driving. Such a finding may be outside the scope of this study due to the limited sample size but it has been observed to occur elsewhere. Recommendations Previous researches have compared internet usage with pathological gambling due to the common effect impacted on the user. Current mobile phone devices are loaded with sophisticated features with the ability to carry out several different applications. This implies that they are more likely to create addictive behavior in the young users. Studies should be formulated to establish the chances of addiction that are associated with more sophisticated devices that are considered to be classy by the youth. If this study is carried out, the results can reveal that high school students frequently use their devices to watch videos and network on social sites during class time. In this regard a further study will be required to identify the extent to which performance is affected by such activities. Further research may reveal many other causal factors that exist within the student’s environment that can positively or negatively impact their cell phone behaviors (Moore, Kirchner, Drotar, Johnson, Rosen, Redline, 2009). In addition, the specific outc omes of intense mobile phone use can also be explored with the aim of identifying the particular symptoms that may be associated with excessive use of mobile phones among high school students. Some other studies have shown that mobile phones may affect attention spans, critical thinking skills and respect for learning and teachers (Kawasaki, Tanei, Ogata, Burapadaja, Loetkham, 2006). These findings have not been verified thus more intense studies should be se up to ascertain the extent to which such effects may affect learning and student performance. Adequate policies should be formulated to guide the use of cell phones by students. As things are now, authorities lag behind parental and student resistance in regard to the use of mobile phones (Kolb, 2006). Parents are increasing viewing mobile phones as a lifeline for their children but this should not be allowed to transform into an entitlement thus far research should be done to identify any agreeable solution to this problem (H akoama Hakoyama, 2011). References Campbell, S. (2007). A cross-cultural comparison of perceptions and uses of mobile telephony. New Media and Society , (9):343-363. Hakoama, M., Hakoyama, S. (2011). The Impact of Cell Phone Use on Social Networking and Development Among College Students. The American  Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences journal , 1-15. Kawasaki, N., Tanei, S., Ogata, S., Burapadaja, F., Loetkham, S. (2006). Survey on Cellular Phone usage by Students in Thailand. Journal of Physiological  Anthropology , 25:377-382. Kolb, L. (2006). From toy to tool: Audioblogging with cell phones. Learning Leading  with Technology , 34(3): 16-20. Lie, E. (2004). Shaping the Future Mobile Information Society: The Case of the  Kingdom of Norway. London: International Telecommunication Union Workshop on Shaping the Future Mobile. Moore, M., Kirchner, H., Drotar, D., Johnson, D., Rosen, C., Redline, S. (2009). Relationships among Sleepiness, Sleep Time, and Psycho logical Functioning in Adolescents. J Pediatr Psychol , 2:567-579. Telecommunications Regulatory Authority. (2009). UAE ICT SURVEY: Acess and Use  of Information and Communications Technology in the UAE. Abu Dhabi: TRA. Thaden, B. (2009). Student Reflective Perceptions of High School Educational Cell Phone Technology Usage. The Journal of Technology Studies , 11-16. Wilknson, R. (2006). The role of parental and peer attchment in the pyschological health and self-esteem of students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence , 33(6):479. Zulkefly, S., Baharudin, R. (2009). Mobile Phone use Amongst Students in Malaysia: Its correlates and Relationship to Psychological Health. European Journal of  Ã‚  Scientific Research , 2:206-218. This essay on Effects and causes of cell phone Usage Among male was written and submitted by user Artur0 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Depression essays

Depression essays Depression describes feelings of sadness, emptiness, and grief which most people experience at some point in their lives. There are hundreds of treatments. The severity, type, and treatment are as different as each individual. Clinical depression is a form of mental illnesss which unlike normal sadness or grief, is of longer duration and significantly impairs the individual's ability to lead a normal life. Reactive depression occurs following a traumatic life event, such as job loss, divorce, or death of a loved one. The depression is more intence than would be reasonable for normal grief of unhappiness. Post natal depression is a serious disorder affecting about 10% of mothers after childbirth. Symtoms are more severe and last longer than in baby blues, bipolar disorder ( manic depression) involves periods of mania involving extreme happiness hyperactivity, rapid speech, a total lach of inhibition, and in more severe cases, delusions of grandeur. (Health Point Depression Pg. 1 ) Brain cells talk to each other by means of chemical messangers. When a person is exposed to too much stress, chemical communication in the brain begins to fail. When these messengers fail a person suffers from sleep disturbances, aches and pains, depression and anxiety. This condition is called overstress. Overstress runs rampant in certain families. Studies have shown that a persons' stress tolerance is determined by his inheritance. The levels of stress in our society will only increase. It is important for each of us to learn to deal with stress now. ( Health Education Stress , Depression, Anxiey, Drug use Pg. 2) Depression not otherwise specified some professionls portray this category as a garbage pail diagnostic category for depression. If someone is obviously depressed, but does not fit into any of the other categories, then this diagnosis is made. However, it is not a garbage pail, but provides a valuable way to cate...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Historical Report on Race and Legislation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Historical Report on Race and Legislation - Essay Example Notably, the Native Americans have diverse experiences in the U.S history. Indeed, they were the first group of people to face subordination from the Europeans. Ideally, the Native Americans and the immigrant Europeans had different cultures and alliance that generated social injustices, ethnic violence, and political tension and economic challenges (Flavin, n.y). Indeed, the Native Americans experienced a lot of discrimination and oppression due to their race and ethnic orientation. More so, the federal government demeaned the Native tribal alliances using acts of parliament starting with the Allotment Act of 1887. Indeed, even the acts that sought to strengthen Native tribal affiliations encouraged the Native Americans to neglect their culture and adopt the White Americans way of living (Schaefer, 2012). As such, the settlers consistently misunderstood and oppressed the Native Americans for many years. Economically, the Native Americans were hunters and gatherers who used oral trad ition to tell their history. In their culture, the women had the responsibility of cultivating various foods that included maize, corn, and beans on behalf of the family. Since, Native Americans comprised of various tribes, they consequently derived distinct cultures like the Maya and Aztec cultures (Schaefer, 2012). They equally had tribal warfare, which seemingly weakened their resistance against the white Americans. Furthermore, the federal government had a unique way of dealing with the Native Americans, which included the limitation to claiming any right against the federal government in absence of a special act of Congress. Indeed, this lasted between 1863 and 1946 (Schaefer, 2012). Notably this limitation discriminated against the Native Americans and manifested a mistreatment against a minority group in the US. However, the Native Americans vehemently resisted these mistreatments (Flavin, n.y) and united across tribal lines and through reservation government actions. Neverth eless, the federal government was also persistent in asserting the rights and privileges of the majority in US. Actually, this continued up to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century when the federal government sought to replace the Native American cultures with the White American manners of life. This has led to continued resistance from the Native Americans and a unity of purpose as they fight for their rights (Oberg, 2010). On the other hand, the Native Americans live a simple life full of hardships and manifest poverty. Indeed, the Native Americans cannot afford most human needs and face many challenges in solving their social problems. In fact, it is notable that there is a huge challenge for Native Americans to access education or establish a stable economic background. As such, the native students feel isolated as they face discrimination in the acquisition of higher education. The Native Americans could also not afford quality healthcare and hence they are prone to p oor health effects. In addition, the Native Americans adopt various religious beliefs that depict their tribal orientations. However, they abhor diverse spirituality and value their cultures greatly. As such, subject to these experiences, the Native Americans faced the challenge of maintaining their indigenous identity or giving in to European pressure that favored the White Americans (Oberg, 2010). Notable, there have been legislations that sought to constrain race within prejudicial boundaries like

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Internet Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Internet Marketing - Essay Example From the discussion it is clear that  the internet is a unique medium of marketing because of the interactive nature and thus it is able to not only provide instant responses but also elicit instant responses from clients and audience in general. Furthermore, the hastily embrace of internet has been as a result of the alleged wider scope of the internet marketing. The scope is wider because it involves both digital media such as e-mail and the wireless media. It is also important to note the fact that internet marketing also involves management of customer data which is digital and also an electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) system.  This paper discusses that internet marketing continues to be popular because it combines the dual potential of internet for marketing; the creativity and technical aspects. These two greatly enhance the aspects of marketing such as the development of design, advertisement and sale. Internet marketing engages the customers through vario us stages such as SEM (search engine marketing), Banner adverts within various popular websites such as face book, marketing via e-mail, SEO (search engine optimization) and web 2.0 strategies. These various stages of customer engagement afford a wider audience and have a scope component as well.  When one talks of internet marketing, a business model within which the internet marketing is conducted is implied. Internet marketing is related to a number of business models. Some of these models include e-commerce, affiliate marketing and publishing among others. Most of these models are based on the particular needs of both the individual customer and needs of the company or organisation that launches the internet marketing campaign. As far as the e-commerce model is concerned (model that is embraced by most organisations that carry out internet marketing) the goods and/or services are sold straight to the customers or other business organisations without going through intermediarie s. This approach is able to afford the internet marketing a one-to-one approach. In this one-to-one internet marketing approach, the targeted consumer is usually browsing alone and thus the advertisement message is able to reach him/her personally. This approach is mostly used along with what is popularly known as search marketing. Search marketing is an internet marketing scenario in which the advertisements are based on the search keywords that are entered by the person browsing the internet (Hanson, 1999: pp245-255). 2.1 Advantages of Internet Marketing Internet marketing is relatively cheaper as compared to other offline media used for marketing. The cost effectiveness is measured in terms of the cost to target audience ratio. Actually, at a lower cost, internet marketing is able to reach a wider audience than the other offline marketing would achieve at a similar

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Masculinity and sexuality in highschool Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Masculinity and sexuality in highschool - Essay Example It emphasizes a great deal about how these problems can be overtaken by positive aspects where both gays and lesbians are receiving equal rights without any demarcations whatsoever (Pascoe, 2007). The effeminate boy and the masculine girls therefore are not being treated fairly which is a shame for such a societal manifestation. The males versus females divide must end now because it does not bring any sane result at the end. It should be tackled in such a way that both gays and lesbians are treated in an equal and balanced fashion without any biasness coming to the fore. This is the basis of having a proper understanding regarding the individuals of any society of the world, irrespective of whether they are straight, gays or lesbians. Thus it would be correct to state that the masculinity and sexuality debates should not be focused towards a particular orientation rather the focus should be on everyone to bring about sanity for all

Friday, November 15, 2019

Spiritual Beliefs Vs Human Reason Philosophy Essay

Spiritual Beliefs Vs Human Reason Philosophy Essay Philosophers and scientists have constantly attempted to explain concepts divine processes described initially. They always sought for a scientific or logical explanation for a phenomenon explained through religion, or not explained at all. Scientists believed natural laws govern universe. As a result, a quest for explanation of events, which seemed illogical, began. The first philosophers speculated that beneath the ever-changing natural world was an unchanging matter (Matthews Platt, 46). They also believed in rationality. Thus, any explanation of a natural concept seemingly unrealistic was questioned. This mindset progressed throughout Western history, and presently, there is the attempt to prove the role of God, and the existence of God through human reason. My opinion is human reason should not preclude the existence of God. Spiritual beliefs and logic should be separate spheres of human existence. Humans beings have two paths to knowledge During the time of the Greeks, there was a myth claiming Apollo drove his chariots across the sky, which was responsible for the rising and setting of the sun. This myth, though illogical, was held high and any opposition to this myth would have been called, in modern terms, blasphemy. The belief was held as firmly as the monotheistic religions believe in the existence of God through faith. Later science was able to prove false the reason for the rising and setting of the sun the Greeks believed in. Even in the case of Galileo Galilee, the churchs theory was that the sun revolved around the fixed Earth: Geocentrism. Galileos attempt to prove otherwise, scientifically, was vigorously fought-against. They forced him to recant his theory because it went against their theory. In their explanation for the cause of rain, Ancient Greeks believed Heras cries fell as rain whenever she found out Zeus, her husband, had gone after other women. These concepts, clearly unscientific, were assumed true. As history moved from the Greek civilization to the modern era, a number of myths were dogmatically believed. Later science and rational thought refuted most of these myths or concepts, while others,-especially those related to spiritual realm, such as the existence of God-are difficult to prove. The Greek civilization was perhaps the foremost place where the tension or dispute between faith, religious thought, spiritual belief; and science, natural philosophy and logical thought began. Philosophers such as Thales, Pythagoras and Heraclitus believed in rationality and the fact that the universe operated on natural laws. Such philosophers believed God or their religious deities had no effect on the natural order of things. The Greeks of the Archaic Age believed the muses were responsible for creative inspiration. Muses were the goddesses of artistic inspiration and claimed to stimulate every work. The monody, lyrical poetry, is based on the personal thoughts of the poet. Then how did the goddesses inspire a work that was based on the poets personal thoughts? In spite of the irrationality of the explanations, the Greeks believed in the explanation of concepts that involved the deities. Philosophers in later civilization asked questions, probing the credibility of the beliefs which resulted in several proofs that opposed myths and religious dogma. Philosophers, since the Hellenic Age have been inquisitive; they questioned divine or illogical explanations to concepts in the universe. Still in the Archaic Age, the idea of believing in concepts, despite the lack of logic behind them, was a key element in their religion. It carried over to later religions in the modern era where religious dogmas are still held. An example of such is the hypostatic union. It is the claim Jesus was both divine and human while in his physical form on earth. To me, the reason the search to understand the natural order of things started, was that everything in the Archaic Age was attributed to the deities. The deities determined the inspiration for works of art, the survival and prosperity of the Greeks, and their cultural accomplishments. Embedded in the Greeks was the belief that as long as they recognized the divinities power and did not challenge themà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦they would survive and often prosper. (Matthews Platt, 41). The initial philosophers were able to ignore the beliefs (or dogma), because they thought of a world that was controlled by natural causes and deities had no eff ect on the world. However, explaining concepts illogically, which actually are scientific, has been a part of religion, even from the Egyptians. This is not to say that religions knew the concepts were of natural causes, but scientific proofs that came later on would not cause the religions to waiver in their initial beliefs. An example is the tale of the beginning of the world. Scientists claim that the world was formed because of an explosion- The Big Bang. Scientists would then question the tale of Christianity: how did God create the whole world in seven days? Many have tried to answer this rationally or scientifically, but in my opinion, it is almost impossible to explain. Yet, Christians still hold on to this belief firmly. So many cultures, as well as science, have their own speculation about the beginning of the universe. The Hebrews belief of the beginning of the world then became the accepted Word of God thus making it seem as if other beliefs are wrong. This undermines the credibility of re ligious beliefs, but does not mean the Hebrews version is false. Take an instance where a murder is commited and three witnesses give entirely different accounts of the details. However, because the three of them gave separate accounts of the murder, does not mean that no version can be the correct one. In fact, the real version might be a combination of all three accounts. I disagree with the attempt to use reason or rational thought to predetermine if God has effect on the world or if He exists. A logical claim I could make is God creates the natural order philosophers try to understand. An example is the recent science discovery refuting the effects of God on the parting of the Red Sea. Scientists found out that the biblical account of the splitting of the Red Sea might have actually been due to natural causes. In the Bible (Exodus 14), God caused the Red Sea to split, allowing the Israelites to pass on dry ground and then the sea caved back in and drowned the Egyptians. However, according to science, the wind from the East (East Wind) could have been so strong as to push the water up several streams for a certain period (for the Israelites to cross) and then cease, to cause water to return to the sea (to drown the Egyptians). It could have been possible that God caused the East Wind to drive the Red Sea up the tributaries at the time the Israelites wanted it, and then caused the river to fall in when the Egyptians were passing through it. The desire to prove the role or existence of God has persisted through centuries. There is such a strong belief that human reasoning can prove the existence of God, if He exists. But if God cannot be proven, then He does not exist, and He is just a fiction of the imagination of monotheists. I disagree with this perspective because the existence of God has to do with the spiritual realm. The existence of God has for a long time, been questioned, and therefore has troubled philosophers and scientists who always seek to explain every concept, but these two theories (mention the name of the theories), in my opinion, should be completely separate spheres of human existence. To Ockham, faith and reason were both valid approaches to truth, but they should be kept apart so that each could achieve its respective end (Matthews Platt, 261). I agree with William of Ockham in this statement because the fact that the first philosophers believed there is regularity in the universe and that human reason can ultimately understand the natural order, does not imply the use of reason should preclude the existence of God. Just as Thales was wrong about the fundamental substance being water, so also could the Milesian school be wrong about using human reason to prove or try to verify the existence of God-that is if God falls under the natural order of things. William of Ockham lived from about 1300 to about 1349, during which many things in the physical world have been invented or discovered. Up until now, the spiritual realm remains a mystery. Apparently, there is a great disparity in achievement between the use of reason to explain things in the physical world and to explain things of the spiritual realm. William of Ockham accepts reason as a valid approach to truth, but he also includes faith as a valid approach to truth. He explicitly says reason alone cannot question the existence of God. Instead, he suggests the existence of God can only be accepted by faith and the divine mysteries can simply be understood by faith. John Duns Scotus concluded, The theologian and the philosopher have different intellectual tasks, [therefore] theology and science should be independent fields of inquiry (Matthews Platt, 261). To elaborate on John Duns Scotus conclusions, as a Christian, I tried to prove the concept of the Trinity to a Muslim, using only logic. No matter how logical my answers were, they still involved spiritual beliefs and faith. Scientists who have attempted to measure the efficacy of prayer have obtained rather conflicting results. How can one attempt to solve a physics problem by reading a literature book? How can scientists make an effort to verify the spiritual beliefs using human reason? According to Ockham, human reason cannot produce any meaningful knowledge about the spiritual realm (Matthews Platt, 261). Furthermore, there are several religious events recorded in the Bible or Quran that are unfounded; for instance, how Noah was able to get all types of animals into the ark and prevent them from eating one another. One cannot answer this question because it does not make sense logically, so humans have to use another form of inquiry, faith. Only faith can explain the divine mystery. William of Ockham asserted, Reason, senses and empirical evidence could enable human beings to discover and hence understand the natural world, stoicism-a philosophy in the Hellenistic Age-offered a seemingly contradictory point of view. The Stoics believed that reason and the senses could be used jointly to uncover the underlying moral law as well as Gods design [or effect] in the world. The Stoics accepted that a spiritual being had effect on the happenings of the universe. An issue is does God have any effect on the universe. The Stoics acknowledge the effect of a supernatural being, William of Ockham does not. The Greeks/Mesopotamians/Egyptians believed that the More importantly, the use of faith to explain spiritual beliefs or religious dogma caused tension between religious thought and rational thought. From the Hellenistic Age, philosophies and religion have offered conflicting answers to unpredictable events and those beyond human control. Concepts, which could not be explained initially, were attributed to God or religious deities like the myth of rain: Hera. The inclination to leave the happenings during their time to the hands of the deities had a strong impact began with the Mesopotamians, who believed they were created to serve the deities. They probably held an even stronger dogma than modern times, because they believed human destinies were in the hands of the gods, and there was nothing they could do about that. Whatever the gods did with their lives could not be questioned. Also, the Hellenistic world had a section of people who believed in Fate. Fate, in that era, meant there were non-physical beings that controlled the natural events. They felt human reason could not understand the natural order of things. The Greeks who began to put humans at the center of the universe fortunately altered this pessimistic approach to life. Their mindset led them to question divine explanations for natural events. The disagreement between materialists and idealists could represent the early dispute between rational thought and spiritual beliefs. Materialists in the Archaic Age believed that the world was made of some basic physical element whereas the idealists reasoned that the physical world was deceptive and that there was a spiritual force or metaphysical power being the physical world. Also in the Hellenistic Age, the clash between these two paths to knowledge has been so significant; they can be found in other works of art. Dramatists wrote plots that dealt with divine law versus human law. Evident in Age of Synthesis (1000 to1300 CE), the tension or dispute has been carried through civilizations. Thomas Aquinas in this Age, tried to resolve the dispute by stating that human beings have two divine paths to truth or knowledge: reason and faith. He refers to divine paths, which indirectly means that the paths are God-given-a spiritual being exists that determines the limit to what we know. However, perhaps the period when the gap between philosophy and theology became the widest was in the Baroque Age 2 (1600 to 1715CE). In this Age of Scientific Revolution, the scientists and philosophers questioned divine explanations; they countered faith with reason, dogma with skepticism, and divine intervention with natural law. Nonetheless, scientists and philosophers have the tendency to assume that if divine concepts or events cannot be explained scientifically or logically, then these concepts or events never happened, or do not exist. This supposed misconception probably came about as a result of the actions of ancient civilizations. These civilizations produced explanations for things beyond their comprehension, which led led religions in later civilizations to explain other concepts divinely. Science has proven some of these concepts false and as a result, this has fuelled the constant dispute between religious beliefs and logical thought. Nevertheless, because some accounts were wrong does not mean all other explanations are. For the reason that Thales was wrong about water being the fundamental substance, did not mean that his belief-there is regularity in the universe-was wrong. Consequently, the use of reason cannot and should not preclude the existence of God. Religious dogma started on earth in Egypt and has manifested in different religions in history. Religious dogma is a belief without proof. Starting from the Egyptians, they believed that the king as god on earth embodied the state. Likewise, there have been several civilizations, which have provided different explanations about the beginning of the universe or life after death. Religious people believe in one holy book or another. The Christian version of the history of the universe is the biblical account. However, just like every tribe has a different story of the creation, the Hebrews had their own, and their version then became the accepted version by Christians-the word of God. Another concept for which several civilizations provided different explanations is life after death. The Egyptians, according to their religion, believed that if they remained faithful to their gods, they would be rewarded with a new life after death. About a thousand years later, the Hellenistic world held similar beliefs. Mithraism followers believed immortality awaited them after death. This concept of immortality is similar to the Egyptians new life after death. Philosophies in the Hellenistic Age attempted to explain life after death. According to Epicureanism, the atoms that made up the soul simply separated from the bodys atoms and united with other particles to create new forms. This way of life made its followers believe that there was a happy life after death. Couples of centuries later, Christians are made to believe the same underlying perception of life after death as did the Egyptians and the Epicureans: if they remain faithful, there would be paradise awaiting them. All through Western history until this date, science has never been able to refute any of these beliefs. Rational thought, or human reason, has not been able to come up with a description of life after death, which would refute these beliefs. Only spiritual belief has helped in understanding life after death. This suggests human reasoning or science is has a limit to which it can understand certain concepts in the universe. Restating Ockams concept, no useful knowledge can be gained through reason or the senses about the spiritual realm. To further the achievement of the Greek genius, human reason, as well as spiritual beliefs can understand concepts of the universe CONCLUSION

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Essay --

Previously it has suggested from studies that rates of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy varies between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian women mainly due to the presence of risk factors that are associated with chronic hypertension. Furthermore, Hispanic ethnicity and multiple gestations are an independent risk factor for preeclampsia. Therefore, in Hispanic women if hypertension is diagnosed early in pregnancy there is an increased likelihood of presence of early preeclampsia. In this study, Wolf et al. examined the relative risk rates of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension by conducting a prospective cohort study of normotensive, nulliparous Hispanic (n = 863) and non-Hispanic Caucasian women (n = 2,381). It was determined that in comparison with non-Hispanic Caucasian women, Hispanic women have significantly decreased incidence of gestational hypertension (1.6% versu s 8.5%; P the review that infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes and HDP are more likely to have hypertension and diabetes as these diseases have their origin in fetal life. Based on review there is a minutely increased risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous Black women than nulliparous White women however opposite is true for parous Black and White women. Hispanic women are more likely to present with preeclampsia than gestational hypertension as Hispanic race is independent risk factor developing preeclampsia. It is suggested that pregnancy may provide an opportunity to recognize the opportunity to detect women who either have subclinical symptoms of CVD or at heightened risk for CVD later in life thus making lifestyle changes are necessary and if other clinical interventions such as frequent monitoring should needed be implemented before the onset of disease.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Anime vs Cartoons Essay

A conversation like this often occurs in conversations between teenagers and adults. Although both Cartoons and Anime are caricatures that may be animated, they differ in visual characteristics and topics/themes. In terms of visual characteristics, Anime is obviously closer to reality than Cartoons. Anime characters have distinct facial expressions and a wide variation of physical characteristics. They depict the tone, energy, and movement of a real human being. Cartoons, however, have features that are not relative to the rest of the body. Unlike Anime, Cartoon characters tend to represent almost anything, inanimate objects or animals, making its idea further from reality. Anime topics and themes concentrate mostly in life issues or things tied closer to human emotions. Japanese animators tend to add the sense of realism in Anime. This is done by animating how water flows, how fire burns wood, and how tears manage to fall from someone’s eyes. These characteristics are what make Anime much appealing to most audiences. On the other hand, Cartoons are generally made to make people laugh, that’s why most cartoon characters are somewhat disproportional, colorful, and comical. Cartoon character traits are far from reality. They are works of imagination which are humorous. However, Cartoons lack the sense of realism. For example, when a Cartoon character cries, it isn’t that effective to audiences because of the way the tears are coming from the character’s eyes. Furthermore, whatever emotion should you try to incorporate with a Cartoon character, it will still be funny. As an overall evaluation, Anime could be much better than Cartoons since it can incorporate different human movements and emotions. Unlike Cartoons, Anime’s aim isn’t just to induce laughter, but also to depict true human nature, feelings, and emotions.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Merchant of Venice essays

Merchant of Venice essays In the Merchant of Venice, there are many differences and similarities. The three topics to compare and contrast are; characters including Antonio vs. Shylock, theme which is love vs. business, and setting such as Belmont vs. Venice. First, the characters Antonio and Shylock both have similarities and differences. Their similarities they share are to seek fortune; they both love money, and they both are moneylenders. In contrast, Shylock seems to love his money more then Antonio does. In the scene when Jessica ran away, she stole some of her fathers gold and jewels. Shylock was upset with his daughter Jessica for leaving but at the same time he was upset that his gold and jewels were gone. Similarly, Shylock and Antonio are both moneylenders, which is lending money to people who are in need. However, Antonio and Shylock have different ways in lending out their money. Shylock earns profit when he lends out his money and receives interest from the money he lends, but Antonio thinks its wrong making interest since it goes against his Christian religion. Another similarity is that they both care about there loved ones. Antonio shows that he loves Bassanio when he sacrifices his own flesh and Shylock shows that he lo ves Jessica when she runs away and Shylock develops sorrowful feelings that his daughter ran away. Another difference between Antonio and Shylock is that Antonio hates Jews, and Shylock is a Jew. Shylock is proud to be Jewish and resents Christianity. Antonio is a Christian and as a result, conflict of interest is why they have such hatred for one another. Also, another difference is that Antonio loves his family more then his money and Shylock loves his family but at the same time loves his money just as much. In conclusion, Antonio and Shylock both have similarities and difference. Second, love and business have always been thought of being opposites, but in the Merchant of Venice they have their similarities and...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Definition and Examples of Verbless Sentences

Definition and Examples of Verbless Sentences Definition In English grammar, a verbless sentence is a construction that lacks a verb but functions as a sentence. Also known as a  broken sentence. A verbless sentence is a common type of minor sentence. In rhetoric, this construction is called scesis onomaton. See Examples and Observations below. Also see: Be DeletionCrotEllipsisFragmentIn Defense of Fragments, Crots, and Verbless SentencesSentence FragmentVerbless ClauseWhat Is a Sentence?Zero Copula Examples and Observations No comment.Great job!Fascinating race, the Weeping Angels.(The Doctor in Blink, Doctor Who, 2007)Waiter! raw beef-steak for the gentlemans eyenothing like raw beefsteak for a bruise, sir; cold lamp-post very good, but lamp-post inconvenient.(Alfred Jingle in The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens, 1837)Smashed wheels of wagons and buggies, tangles of rusty barbed wire, the collapsed perambulator that the French wife of one of the towns doctors had once pushed proudly up the planked sidewalks and along the ditchbank paths. A welter of foul-smelling feathers and coyote-scattered carrion which was all that remained of somebodys dream of a chicken ranch.(Wallace Stegner, Wolf Willow, 1962)A white hat. A white embroidered parasol. Black shoes with buckles glistening like the dust in the blacksmiths shop. A silver mesh bag. A silver calling-card case on a little chain. Another bag of silver mesh, gathered to a tight, round neck of strips of silver that will open out, like the hatrack in th e front hall. A silver-framed photograph, quickly turned over. Handkerchiefs with narrow black hemsmorning handkerchiefs. In bright sunlight, over breakfast tables, they flutter.(Elizabeth Bishop, In the Village. The New Yorker, December 19, 1953) Paris with the snow falling. Paris with the big charcoal braziers outside the cafes, glowing red. At the cafe tables, men huddled, their coat collars turned up, while they finger glasses of grog Americain and the newsboys shout the evening papers.(Ernest Hemingway, The Toronto Star, 1923; By-Line: Ernest Hemingway, ed. by William White. Scribners, 1967)It better as a verbless sentence seems to have won a place in correct, if informal, speech. I sure hope the market improves. It better. In fact, it had better might seem excessively formal in such an exchange.(E. D. Johnson, The Handbook of Good English. Simon Schuster, 1991)Fowler on the Verbless SentenceA grammarian might say that a verbless sentence was a contradiction in terms; but, for the purpose of this article, the definition of a sentence is that which the OED calls in popular use often, such a portion of a composition or utterance as extends from one full stop to another.The verbless sentence is a device for enlivening the w ritten word by approximating it to the spoken. There is nothing new about it. Tacitus, for one, was much given to it. What is new is its vogue with English journalists and other writers . . ..Since the verbless sentence is freely employed by some good writers (as well as extravagantly by many less good ones) it must be classed as modern English usage. That grammarians might deny it the right to be called a sentence has nothing to do with its merits. It must be judged by its success in affecting the reader in the way the writer intended. Used sparingly and with discrimination, the device can no doubt be an effective medium of emphasis, intimacy, and rhetoric.(H.W. Fowler and Ernest Gowers, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 1965) Henry Peacham on Scesis OnomatonHenry Peacham [1546-1634] both defined and exemplified scesis onomaton: When a sentence or saying doth consiste altogether of nouns, yet when to every substantive an adjective is joined, thus: A man faithful in friendship, prudent in counsels, virtuous in conversation, gentle in communication, learned in all learned sciences, eloquent in utterance, comely in gesture, pitiful to the poor, an enemy to naughtiness, a lover of all virtue and goodliness (The Garden of Eloquence). As Peachams example demonstrates, scesis onomaton can string together phrases to form an accumulatio . . ..(Arthur Quinn and Lyon Rathburn, Scesis Onomaton. Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, ed. by Theresa Enos. Routledge, 2013)Scesis Onomaton in George Herberts Sonnet PrayerPrayer the churchs banquet, angels age,Gods breath in man returning to his birth,The soul in paraphrase, heart in pilgrimage,The Christian plummet sounding heavn and earthEngine against th Almighty, sin ners towr,Reversed thunder, Christ-side-piercing spear,The six-days world transposing in an hour,A kind of tune, which all things hear and fear;Softness, and peace, and joy, and love, and bliss,Exalted manna, gladness of the best,Heaven in ordinary, man well drest,The milky way, the bird of Paradise,Church-bells beyond the stars heard, the souls blood,The land of spices; something understood.(George Herbert [1593-1633), Prayer [I])

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Music alone by Peter Kivy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Music alone by Peter Kivy - Essay Example Taking the example of sad music, it can be said that music is sad in its quality of having sadness as a solid property just like an egg has an oval shape and white color as apparent properties. This approach gives emotions a defined function. Hence, this essay tends to highlight how Kivy shows that music doesn’t arouse emotions rather it defines them i.e. what type of emotions does music make us experience. On pg 40-41, the stimulation model is not embraced by Kivy as it doesn’t account for the mental aspect of listening to music or relating to it. It can be understood from how Kivy illustrates though Tibby’s addiction and arousal. It is limited to arousal and feelings where as Kivy rightly believes that the mind is equally active while music listening. Arousal occurs like a sort of pleasure that is experienced with sugar or favorite foods or as Kivy says on p.40 â€Å"as drugs stimulate euphoria†. This does not answer the artistic or moral sense of suitab ility which makes it seem morally fitting that we hear serious music when serious while lighthearted music when lighthearted. If we look it through the perspective of Kivy, it is explained that the listeners and individuals say emotional utterances, such as "How amazing" or show movements like Mrs Munt taps her feet, but it is undoubtedly not these responses to music that the listeners are observing and analyzing in their minds. This does not occur â€Å"mindlessly†. These descriptions of music are cognitive but not emotive. For instance, a popular quote from Kivy is, "Sadness is a quality of the music, not a power of the music to do things to the listener" Kivy rejects stimulation model because it largely ignores the conscious and unconscious features of music listening that Kivy elaborates on pg.43. In the unconscious process, ‘expectations are aroused, fulfilled and frustrated’. The weaknesses of the stimulation model are the strengths on the representation model. The representational model of music paints a picture, imitates non musical sounds or tells a story in a song. All these aspects must be included to deduce pleasure from the integrated cognitive experience of music which is not limited to a stimulus for the nervous system. Simply put, the music becomes a cognitive experience because the listener like Tibby perceives the representation in music. The stimulation is on the right only if it has no content; this way it will have no meaning and the listener will have nothing to register or retrieve in his mind. In this light, the stimulation model is right in saying music arouses emotion but music without content. Kiv y verifies his stance yet again by extracting the intellectual aspect of ‘counting’ from Leibniz’s account p.38, (Kivy 1990). Kivy’s representational model is quite convincing especially when the reader reads the entire account in detail; if one applies the theory to different passages of music, one can clearly navigate the cognitive elements. The effect of music, as the stimulation suggests cannot be determined by the impact on the listeners’ sense organs. Emotions have their own physiological component and it cannot be confused as a result of music (Kivy 1990). Otherwise, the stimulation model just attempts to be reductionist in a sense, because it does not focus on the intellectual functioning that occurs during the listening of music especially repetitive listening or in the case of the infant as Kivy highlights

Friday, November 1, 2019

The gender class between the past and modern China Essay

The gender class between the past and modern China - Essay Example In today`s world, Chinese women are given greater freedom and opportunities. They are allowed to live a normal life and make their own decisions but even today, the Chinese culture is in favor of men. No matter how much advanced and successful the economy is, men are still preferred more over women and are given greater opportunities. Historically, women were treated as mere creatures rather than members of the human community. The patriarchal structure of the Chinese culture gained a lot of importance during the years 960-1279 CE. During this period of the song dynasty, the gender differences in China reached to its maximum limit. The practice of foot-binding was introduced during this period and though not practiced today, this practice has left a number of foot prints (Gender issues in the Chinese culture, Web). Foot binding is a practice in which a girl`s feet are tightly bound to limit female mobility as well as to restrict the growth of girls. It was a totally inhumane practice which was thought to be started in Imperial China during the 10th or the 11th century. It started as a status symbol indicating a high social rank, but unfortunately spread through out China. Although it has been banned by the Chinese government, its effects can still be seen today as some of its victims are still found today. As a result of this practice, the women affected were not able to support their families by working in the fields and made them dependant. During the same period, women were forced to marry against their wishes and after marriage, had to comply with the wishes of her husband as well as her in laws (Traditions of foot binding in China, Web). Confucianism is the foundation of traditional Chinese system, created by Confucius who displayed gender discrimination by placing women at the lower end of a patriarchal domestic family system. This theory was supported by the initiation of the Neo-Confucianism which placed more restrictions of women. The teachings of Conf ucius were further strengthened by Ban Zhoa`s â€Å"Lesson for girls†. Apart from the practice of foot binding, female infanticide became quite common. The Chinese men only cared about their sons as they would carry forward the family name. The girls born in their family were treated as dirt and were either left to die or were even sold to rich families as mere objects and slaves. Families in China have favored sons over daughters in the past as well and this has increased the number of men in China today. There have been infinite cases of infanticide, better treatment of baby boys than baby girls and abandonment of new born baby girls. This increase in the number of Chinese men has been made possible by advances such as ultrasounds which make it possible to know the sex of the baby about to be born. This has been supported by factual evidence as the number of male births has increased from 108 in 1980s to 120 in 2000. This problem was worsened by the one child policy by the Chinese authorities and people were reluctant to give birth to baby girls as their only child. This increase in the number of men has been predicted to result in a rise in crime rates of sexual violence and other social crimes (China`s great gender crisis, Web). The problem of surplus of women has been felt by the Chinese authorities as they have made it a part of the country`s fie year plan to cut the ratio of the sex gap to 112 or 113 by