Monday, September 30, 2019
When a business first starts trading it has few loyal customers and no reputation. The most likely objective for a start up business is simply survival. As the business grows and begins to win market share, the aim may shift towards expansion and increasing profits. Without aims and objectives there is no meaning to the business. The objective of both things to make business work even better than what it would normally do. An aim Ã¢â¬â Where the business wants to go in the future and its goals. It is a statement purpose. Like want to grow the business in to Europe Objectives- give the business a clearly defined target. Plans can then be made to achieve these targets. This can motivate the employees. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also enable the business to measure the progress towards its started aims The most effective business objectives meet the following criteria: Specific -clear and easy to understand. Measurable Ã¢â¬â i.e. able to be quantified. Achievable Ã¢â¬â possible to be reached. Realistic Ã¢â¬â not Ã¢â¬Ëpie in the skyÃ¢â¬â¢. Time bound Ã¢â¬â associated with a specific time period. An example of a SMART objective is to increase profits 10% within the next 12 months. SMART objectives allow the performance of business to be identified. Purpose- the purpose of having aim and objectives is to plan a way forward which will help them to establish the future state of works in other word, how their business will be in a few yearÃ¢â¬â¢s time part of this handle is planning. So they have an uncertain concept that how they will achieve that certain goal and status in the business in few years time Another purpose of setting aims and objectives is to measure the performance, for example, how much profit they have made in the last year, so they know that they are doing better or worse than last year. They will provide information to those who are interested, which will lead to encourage them to do better. Break even- is the point at which cost or expenses and revenue are equal. For example, if a business sells fewer than 200 tables each month, it will make a loss, if it sells more, it will be a profit. With this information, the business managers will then need to see if they expect to be able to make and sell 200 tables per month. Survival- Diversifying- diversify your business by natural progression. For instance, if you sell menÃ¢â¬â¢s shirts, adding ties and cufflinks to the range are an obvious next step. More radically, you extend the brand by offering a much wider range of products that will nonetheless appeal to the same customers. Alternatively, you can use the strength of brand to move into new markets. Cost cutting- here is significant ways to save money without compromise: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time- As a small business owner, you put in a lot of hours, but time is still a limited resource. Wasting time can cut into your sales and hurt your bottom line. As a general rule, anything that you can implement to save time will also save you money in the long run. Cut Out Paper- According to research by Xerox, about 40% of office paper is discarded within 24 hours of anyone printing on it. If you add up how much you spend on printing supplies, paper, and labor, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll quickly see that using electronic file storage can save you loads of money. Shop Around for Insurance Ã¢â¬â There are a lot of great ways to lower your insurance costs, but the most important step is to find and compare insurance policies. You should always be looking for the best rates out there, especially at renewal time. http://www.slideshare.net/tariqmehsud/nikes-presentation http://education.cambridge.org/media/576464/business_and_management_for_the_ib_diploma___cambridge_education___cambridge_university_press_samples.pdf
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Introduction Food plays a significant role in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. These may encompass food as a tool for comfort, reward, as a hobby and also for travel. It has become a defining obsession among the young and urbane, viewing it as a legitimate option for a hobby, a topic of continual discussion and a playground for competition. FoodÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation from a fetid hobby to a youth-culture phenomenon happens remarkably fast. In these events, food becomes one of the primary reasons in motivating a person to travel (Idov, 2012). Culinary tourism covers beyond the dining experience. It includes a variety of culinary, agri-tourism and agri-food activities, developed specifically for tourists that showcase food and beverages. This also provides opportunity for visitors to discover dishes indigenous to each region while learning about its unique talents and creativity. The International Culinary Tourism Association also defines Culinary Tourism as, Ã¢â¬Å"the pursuit of unique and memorable eating and drinking experiences.Ã¢â¬ Cuisine is among the most flexible and dynamic elements of culture. It involves the blending of ingredients and preparations for different cultures. Agricultural diversification, food preservation technology, efficient transportation, awareness of new food preparation techniques, prestige foods and migrations into and out of communities have been ushering supplementary culinary traditions in the Philippines. Culinary traditions are important elements of a peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s history. As local tourism and heritage conservation become significant to community pride and income, histories about food are needed as reference for contemporary projects and planning. There are many reasons for valuing culinary history (Sta. Maria, 2006). The PhilippinesÃ¢â¬â¢ 7,107 islands, divided into 77 provinces, show an enormous diversity in both their people and landscape. From the rugged cliffs and Ivatans of Batanes Islands through the sophisticated urbanites of Manila to the coral islands and Moslems of Tawi Ã¢â¬â Tawi, this is a land of extraordinary contrast and variety (Hicks, 2005). Philippine cuisine begin with a simple fare, a variety of vegetables readily gathered from the environment Ã¢â¬â yams such as taro, an assortment of leaves, coconut milk, fish, and chicken and pig, both of which are native to Southeast Asia. The Malay-Polynesian kitchen contributions such as coconut milk, varieties of rice, garlic, ginger, salted dried fish, shrimps, fish sauce, leaf-wrapped cuisine and roast pig are the staple. The use of peanuts and spices is more passive than in neighboring countries like Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. From the Chinese cuisine evolved the lumpia and pancit which have taken the form of pancit luglug, pancit guisado, pancit marilao, pancit palabok and pancit molo. Spanish cooking introduced meat boiled as in puchero, cooked in vinegar as in adobo, stewed in tomato sauce as in mechado and scopped out and restuffed as relleno; along with desserts like leche flan and pastry such as ensaimada (Roces, 2006). Heading on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region lays the province of Batangas which offers acclaimed taste sensations. The name Batangas come from the word Ã¢â¬Å"batanganÃ¢â¬ meaning a raft that the people use for fishing in Taal Lake. Two of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s rarest freshwater fishes namely maliputo and tawilis are found in Taal Lake. Batangas cow is widely sought throughout the country. It is said to be one of the best species of cattle in the Philippines. Batangas culture is greatly influenced by the Spaniards because of their long period of settlement. Food is an integral part of the Batangas culture. Most BatangueÃ ±os are farmers and fishermen who sell their own products in the market. People can find a very hospitable culture in the BatangueÃ ±os, sharing more than the usual of the food they eat. Tourists keep coming back to Batangas not only for its attractions but also for the authentic food it offers. Batangas cuisine is attractive not because of the presentation of the dish, but because of its essence. The philosophy of cooking in Batangas is that cooking should highlight rather than coat. This study entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Culinary Tourism: Assessment of Batangas CuisineÃ¢â¬ aims to evaluate the prominence of culinary attractions in Batangas, and the perception of the tourists in the native cuisines. Statement Of The Problem The researchers sought the answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the tourists in terms of: a. Age; b. Gender; c. Place of Origin; and d. Frequency of visit 2. What is the profile of the local dishes in terms of: a. Ingredients; b. Presentation; c. Techniques; d. History; e. Geography; and f. Prevailing Flavors 3. What is the perception of the tourists on the local dishes in terms of: a. Authenticity; b. Related programs and activities; and c. Feedback of tourist on the local dishes 4. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the tourists and their perception on the local dishes? Research Objectives The researchers fulfilled the following objectives: 1. Identify the profile of the tourists in terms of: a. Age; b. Gender; c. Place of Origin; and d. Frequency of visit. 2. Distinguish the profile of the local dishes in terms of: a. Ingredients; b. Presentation; c. Techniques; d. History; e. Geography; and f. Prevailing Flavors. 3. Determine the perception of the tourist on the local dishes in terms of: a. Authenticity; b. Related programs and activities; and c. Feedback of tourists on the local dishes. 4. Determine the significant relationship between the profile of the tourists and their perception on the local dishes. Significance Of The Study This study would be beneficial not only for the researchers but also for the other sectors of the society. The research would be significant for the endeavors of the following people: For hospitality students and professors The research will serve as a reference for the students and professors in their Hospitality Management courses. This study will also help students and professors to gain a deeper understanding in relation to the study. For the local community The study will strengthen the awareness of the local community in authentic cuisines of the different municipalities in Batangas. Through this study, they will be more familiar with their own traditional cuisines. For producers of the cuisines The study will serve as an opportunity to preserve and sustain the cuisines to the future generation. It will be beneficial for the producers of these cuisines to enhance their reputation and prestige. This will also be the source of their revenue if the cuisines will be recognized more by the people. For the local government The research will help the local government of Batangas in establishing a framework for the development of Food tourism. It will also help in promoting BatangueÃ ±o cuisines and the province itself. For the tourists The research will help the tourists to be more knowledgeable of the authentic cuisines the BatangueÃ ±os has to offer. It will also guide them in experiencing and familiarizing with the different cuisines in Batangas. For travel entities. The study will serve as a guide for the travel entities in promoting the Culinary Tourism of Batangas to their clients. It will also serve as a basis for formulating tour packages that will suit the preferences of the clients. For the researchers The study will be significant for the researchers in enhancing their knowledge about the native cuisines in the province of Batangas. It will serve as a tool in boosting the awareness of the researchers in the field of Food Tourism. For future researchers. The study will be helpful for the future researchers as their basis for their potential study. Scope and Limitation The study only covered Food Tourism of selected areas in Batangas. It also determined the main dishes the BatangueÃ ±os have to offer. These main dishes included Maliputo, Tawilis, Adobo sa Dilaw, Taghilaw, Tinindag, Bulalo and Sinaing na Tulingan that can be found in Lipa City, Taal, and Sto. Tomas. The dishes selected are most frequently encountered by the researchers in books, magazines, newspapers and government brochures. The study evaluated the perception of the tourists on the local dishes but not those of the local residents. It did not cover the eating habits of the tourists and the ethnic diversity of the dishes. Moreover, the study did not include the native delicacies and beverages.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Alexis Montgomery Professor Jonathan Luftig English 102 Women of Frankenstein: Impact Based on Influence The novel Frankenstein touches on many controversial themes such as, solitude, the division of Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ evil, rejection, debate about Nature vs. Nurture, manipulation and etc. Among the many controversial themes, the one that is constantly mentioned is the rather passive, Ã¢â¬Å"supportingÃ¢â¬ female roles in the novel. Despite her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s feminist and independent legacy, Mary Shelley seemed to have written from a more societal perspective in the roles of her characters as opposed to a rebellious, un-relatable perspective.Examples of this can be found in the relationships between the characters, as well as backgrounds of each. In Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, her female characters seem to reflect women of her time, including herself, in supporting their male counterparts even when socially invisible. As the author, Mary Shelley used her personal experiences and biasÃ¢â¬â¢s of her time to write her novel. Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother died giving birth to her, leaving her to be raised by her father who was a member of a group of radical thinkers. When growing up without a mother, it is imaginable that your influences are not necessarily limited, but shifted.Mary did not have her mother, so she may have looked to the women of her time as examples of what life was supposed to be like. Mary Wollstonecraft wrote in her Ã¢â¬Å"Vindication of the Rights of WomenÃ¢â¬ , Women are told from their infancy, and taught by the example of their mothers, that a little knowledge of human weakness, justly termed cunning, softness of temper, outward obedience, and a scrupulous attention to a puerile kind of propriety, will obtain for them the protection of man; (Wollstonecraft Chpt II) Women in the early 19th century era were viewed as inferior to men.The place of women was considered to be in their home, privately. Her novel can be considered a way for her to deal with questions of her own autobiography, through fiction. In being raised by just her father, in the radical atmosphere, she was exposed to advanced ideas at an early age. She then became known in the literary circle with people such as Lord Byron, the friend and neighbor of her family. In being surrounded by writers and poets, like Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, she was able to shape and mold her ideas.The company of such men, can be described as a Ã¢â¬Å"writerÃ¢â¬â¢s dreamÃ¢â¬ , a place of such intellect and creativity, sparking ideas for such novels like Frankenstein. As Mary Shelley progressed in her personal life, she ended up in an intimate relationship with Percy Bysshe Shelley, causing her to conceive. She conceived children with him over the years, only to find she was unable to support life, losing three of her four children she had given birth to. All but one child, lived a short term after they were born. Losing these children is so significant bec ause it helped her express her feelings on birth through writing.In Ellen MoerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Female Gothic: The MonsterÃ¢â¬â¢s MotherÃ¢â¬ , she relates MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s lose of her children to the creation of the monster. She states, Frankenstein seems to be distinctly a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s mythmaking on the subject of birth precisely because its emphasis is not upon what precedes birth, not upon birth itself, but upon what follows birth: the trauma of the afterbirth. (Shelley 321) This supports that Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of guilt and sadness surrounding birth and the consequences it produces. The loss of her children can be analyzed as expression of personal fears and pains through her writing.Her experiences have made her views of childbirth, into something grotesque and wretched, this causing the creation of the creature. After being unable to reproduce and losing a quality woman of that era were expected to have, Mary not only didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a mother, but also wa s unable to become one herself. While propping the men up, enabling them to function, the women of the novel were also portrayed as weak. The ideas of the women in her novel being portrayed as weak can be viewed as a self-reflection of herself.Being without guidance or female influence, and unable to provide to offspring, she viewed herself as weak. Her personal-reflection of herself is reflected in women of the novel such as Justine, Elizabeth, and even the idea of the female creature. Victor is supported by Justine in everything he does and the creature uses the thought of a female creature as a companion to Ã¢â¬Å"supportÃ¢â¬ him. Men represent all women of Frankenstein, all three narrators are male and they Ã¢â¬Å"narrateÃ¢â¬ what the women have said because the whole story is told by men.An example of this is when the creature says, My companion will be of the same nature of myself, and will be content with the same fare. We shall make our bed of dried leaves; the sun wil l shine on us as on man, and will ripen our food. (Shelley 103) The female creature would serve as Ã¢â¬Å"supportÃ¢â¬ for the male creature because her purpose only served to be his companion. For his happiness, he would risk creating a creature as grotesque, with fearful looks. His actions and statement prove the selfishness and dominance of men in the novel.Though men are perceived as the dominant role in the novel, it is ironic that the story is centered on letters between Margaret and Robert. If Margaret hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s listener and exchanged letters with him, Robert would have no one to tell VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s story to, meaning there would be no novel. Margaret being a woman, can be viewed as the reason the novel exists. Being the main character in the novel, Victor and his relationship with Elizabeth play a large part in the examples of how men are the dominant characters, but only sustain their roles because the women are self-sacrificing.ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s character traits influence her behaviors in her relationship with Victor by making her easy to manipulate. When VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Caroline died, Elizabeth assumed her role in household duties and plays the mother figure. Though she assumes such a role, she has little substance, still passive, with not much contribution to social matters or decisions. In a sense, because she was not heard, she was not seen in a public aspect. Victor was bold, controlling, and selfish, not only in his disregard for female needs and roles in the novel, but also in other instances.His selfishness was portrayed in his desire to create life, in leaving his family and not contacting them, and once he created life, he disowned his creature, shirking all responsibility. Victor was so self-absorbed that he overestimates his importance. This was the reason behind why he was unable to figure out the creature was coming for Elizabeth and recognizes that she now symbolizes vengeance. Her role was so consist ent and insignificant to him that he was unable to fathom the importance of her death as well as its affect on himself.This is shown after the death of his wife, an example is when he states, Nothing is so painful to the human mind as a great and sudden change. The sun might shine, or the clouds might lour; but nothing could appear to me as it had done the day before. A fiend had snatched from me every hope of future happiness. (Shelley 142) In Anne MellorÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Female In FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ , she explores the idea of the destruction of female roles due to the difficulty switching from the public sphere, which was more masculine, to the private sphere, which was more feminine.In the preface Percy writes, his concern the novel was the, Ã¢â¬Å"the exhibition of the amiableness of domestic affection, and the excellence of universal virtue. Ã¢â¬ (Shelley 7) He exhibits this in Elizabeth. Though Elizabeth exists in the private sphere, to the family she is a symbol of dom estic harmony and can be considered a character based on sacrifice and true virtue. In all the things she does for Victor as well as his family, she is VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s hope for future joy. After all the bad things he has done and all the mistakes he has made, Elizabeth represents domestic peace.Her representation of domestic peace can subconsciously be the reason VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s family wants him to marry her so badly. The death of Justine as well as Elizabeth was centered on the selfishness of men they loved. Justine was put to death, after trial because Victor refused to admit the creature he created was the cause of his brother WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s death. ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s death was caused because VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s selfish ways made him refuse to create the creature a female companion to have in his life. Both of these women can be looked at as self-sacrificing.Victor Frankenstein dealt with his extreme guilt of withholding information and secrets from his family regarding his creation , putting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, such as JustineÃ¢â¬â¢s in jeopardy. His secrecy can easily be the reason for the death of Justine, William, and Elizabeth. This extreme guilt is key in discussing how he one of the dominant characters in the novel, because despite how much guilt he feels he never disclosed to anyone his secret creature until he met Robert. In the novel, Victor Frankenstein as a Creator of the creature can be compared to a Mother, giving birth to a child, something that the author, Mary Shelley was unable to do.Again, she uses her personal experiences to express herself in her writing. Victor stripped women of their main purpose during that era, to reproduce. He established that the role played by women isnÃ¢â¬â¢t limited to female characters, but can be shown in men as well because Victor can be considered a bad mother. Also in Anne MellorÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Female In FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ , she states, In place of normal heterosexual attachment to Elizabeth, Vict or Frankenstein has a substituted a homosexual obsession with his creature, an obsession that in his case is energized by a profound desire to reunite with his dead mother, by becoming himself a mother. Shelley 363) The loss of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s influences cause him to want to create life on his own, so that he can influence or rather control it, leading to the creation of the Creature. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s personal struggle is evident because though he was able to create life, he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t proud of it, and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t anything like he thought it would be. He then abandoned the creature, sort of like his mother had done when she died, and like Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had done when she died as well. Another example of the roleÃ¢â¬â¢s women play to the male characters was shown the CreatureÃ¢â¬â¢s need for a female companion.The CreatureÃ¢â¬â¢s solitude never allowed him to know what love was, until he began watching the De LacyÃ¢â¬â¢s and seeing the love they shared as a family and how happy Safie made Felix when returning to his life. Felix seemed ravished with delight when he saw her, every trait of sorrow vanished his face, and it instantly expressed a degree of ecstatic joy, of which I could hardly have believed it capable; his eyes sparkled, as his cheek flushed with pleasure; and at that moment I thought him more beautiful than the stranger. (Shelley 81)This moment of joy is something he wanted to feel for himself, or better yet something he wanted someone else to feel for him. He longed for someone to accept him and risk everything, just as Felix had done for Safie. When learning their backgrounds and seeing how Felix risked his family, reputation, and wealth, all to save SafieÃ¢â¬â¢s father, the Turk and to marry her, the Creature yearned for that kind of love. He also admired, the extents companions seemed to go for each other. The Creature seems to want a counterpart, not only because she is a female nd he wants to be loved, but bec ause he wants to share his burden of ugliness and non-acceptance from humans who have shunned him. After viewing their relationship he reflects on his loneliness and goes on to blame Victor for his pain. Cursed Creator! Why did you form a monster so hideous that even you turned from me in disgust? God in pity made man beautiful and alluring, after his own image; but my form is a filthy type of yours, more horrid from its very resemblance. (Shelley 91) In his inhuman heart, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t long for material things or wealth, he longs to experience life as heÃ¢â¬â¢s viewed it as a bystander.Watching the De LaceyÃ¢â¬â¢s function in society and as a family, is the example he leads by, therefore he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why he is unable to have that as well. This fact is what makes the creature most human, maybe even more human than Victor because of his need for communication and love, while Victor never needed any of that. Never once in the novel did Victor long for real comp anionship, his joys came in being isolated from others, which caused him to predetermine the creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s life of isolation as well.In never needing a companion to share life with, Victor saw no problem in destroying the female creature he had created for the male creature. Because Victor excluded women in every way, and he clearly doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the significance of his own female counter part in the novel, he definitely doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the creatures. Not knowing the significance of a feminine role in his life, nor the creatures is what made the destruction of the female creature an easy decision for him.One of the biggest reasons he struggled to understand the significance was because he was clouded by his fear. In Anne MellorÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"The Female In FrankensteinÃ¢â¬ , she argues that Ã¢â¬Å" he is afraid of an independent female will, afraid that his female creature will have desires and opinions that cannot be controlled by his male creature. Ã¢ â¬ (Shelley 360) VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s true fear was that by creating a female creature, heÃ¢â¬â¢d be defying everything that he believed in. The belief that women are to be more of the private sphere than the public might change and it would cause imbalance of society in his eyes.What if, a women or female could walk the earth as men and think their own thoughts and live life as she pleased. The belief that women are to be controlled, rather than loved and treated equally is what causes each female not to exist anymore. The novel uses its female characters to display that of women in Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s time, displaying failed attempts at changing societal roles. The men of Frankenstein control life, death, and the all possibility of any women functioning as an equal. Mellor, Anne K. Possessing Nature: The Female in Frankenstein. Ã¢â¬ Norton Critical Edition (1996): 274-86. Print. Moers, Ellen. Ã¢â¬Å"Female Gothic: The Monster's Mother. Ã¢â¬ New York Review of Books (1974). Rpt. in Frankenstein: A Norton Critical Edition. Ed. J. Paul Hunter. New York: Norton, 1996. 214-24. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein: A Norton Critical Edition. ed. J. Paul Hunter. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996 Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. A Wollstonecraft Anthology. Ed. Janet M. Todd. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977
Friday, September 27, 2019
Materiality in Auditing - Essay Example In the process of audit planning, the auditor takes the decision as to the level of materiality they will use, accounting for the entirety of financial statements that will be audited. This judgment is mainly done on the basis of the nature, size, and specific circumstances of omissions or misstatements that could influence the financial reportÃ¢â¬â¢s user. Moreover, this judgment is also influenced by public expectations, regulatory requirements, and legislative requirements (Vaujany & Mitev, 2013: p32). This paper seeks to discuss the importance of materiality in the auditing context, as well as to assess the secrecy of materiality levels used by auditors. According to Porter et al (2014: p73), the term material is critically essential in the context of auditing. Materiality definitions in financial reporting are especially critical to auditors, financial statement preparers, and financial statement users. While only two of these stakeholders may be involved in making decisions on materiality, in this case the auditors and the preparers, the definition of materiality in auditing is oriented more towards the user. The userÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment of decisions on materiality is central to defining materiality, rather than the judgment of the financial statement preparer. Budescu et al (2012: p24) define materiality as one of the fundamental and essential auditing concept, noting that the Auditing and Assurance Standard-13 on audit materiality establishes the materiality conceptÃ¢â¬â¢s standards, as well as how it relates with audit risk. A fair and true financial statement and how it is presented will depend on the materiality concept, amon g other things. Keune & Johnstone (2012: p1650) note the relative nature of the materiality concept, arguing that what is material in a specific situation may be immaterial in another circumstance and that consideration and judgment on materiality is a matter for the auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s experience and professional judgment. Thus, the
Thursday, September 26, 2019
CALCULUS 3 (LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS) - Essay Example It is possible to find the minima or maxima of a given function f of several variables given that the variables have restrictions. Langrage multipliers help us minimize or maximize functions with constraints that are points on a definite surface (Stewart, 67). Finding critical points of a function f (w, x, y) on a level surface or subject to the constraint g (w, x, y) = M. Solving this problem requires a solving the following series of simultaneous equations. Ã » is a dummy variable known as a langrage multiplier. The most important variable in the equation are w, x, and y. After solving for the critical values, you insert them into the function to find the maxima and the minima. The critical points where the function is greatest are maxima while where it is smallest are minima (Stewart, 72). Solving the system equations can be a difficult task. In order to solve for the critical points in an easier way, one should consider the following tricks; Solve for Ã » in terms of the variables w, x, and y to eliminate it from the equations. Solve any of the variables in terms of the other variables. Consider both the positive and negative square roots whenever using a square root (Courant,
Research Paper Example The energy from a rubber band for moving an object can make for a great idea. The idea behind using the rubber band is that the rubber band stores energy while being stretched and then while released can provide energy to make something Ã¢â¬Å"goÃ¢â¬ . One can find the amount of energy a rubber band has by studying the rubber band while it is at rest. This works by allowing the rubber band to first rest. Once the rubber band is at rest it can be stretched. The stretching of the rubber band stores energy. Once the stretched rubber band is released it releases energy as it returns back to its pre stretched state. The energy released from the rubber band can provide enough force to power an object with wheels. If the weight is light enough for the elasticity of the rubber band, the object will move. It is important to make sure the strength of the rubber band is suitable for the object. The rubber band has to be strong enough to release enough energy to move the object. Tests can help indicate which rubber band is strong enough for the object. When the rubber band is twisted instead of stretched it can store more energy. The rubber band once twisted has double the strength. As the rubber band untwists itself it can release much energy.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The role of slavery the global economy today - Essay Example ng labor at really low cost or free of service in some cases and incur little expenses simply in the form of food which is not even provided daily and in most cases provided to them only once in a day despite the excess work they are being forced to carry out. Slavery in the Middle East countries for example is in the form of domestic work at home. These individuals who are rich because of oil money mistreat these domestic workers by making them work unfairly long hours from early morning even before day break to late at night. They have extensive homes with very few workers to provide care for cleaning, washing, doing dishes, ironing, cooking and feeding their pets in addition to taking care of their children. Very many people live in one house and they are also very fond of entertaining guests. All this work which should in the real sense be provided by over six workers with the aid of machines is left for one individual and they are not given food. The usage of expense money for the masters is therefore reduced as they do not have to purchase the machines to make work easier or pay excessive electricity bills or provide monetary payment for the domestic worker (Pattisson, 2015). Forced labor is an eminent issue in some of the European nations such as France, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain among others and the government has contributed greatly to it and is doing nothing to stop it. The tough immigration and labor laws have made many immigrants lack better employment opportunities making them become slaves through being forced into labor. They are exploited with little pay while the owners of the industries and factories where they work in (as that are where majority work), enjoys the increased productivity with minimal expenses of wages and salaries being incurred (Kelly, 2013). Many work also for long hours without any extra pay once their official shifts end which is illegal but the law does not take that into consideration. The fact that the
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
PERSONAL PERSPCETIVE( REFLECT ) OF MANAGING CHANGE - Essay Example Introduction Change occurs from time to time and change is the nature of things. Nothing in this world is constant or unchangeable. Would we like our own house for instance, if for years we had the same furniture, the same upholstery, the same colors? We like to make things different and we also know that any change around the house makes us feel better. The mind wants change but when the mind is not prepared for the change, it resists change. However, if we are informed of the change in advance we become mentally prepared for it and then we are not disturbed. This implies that change causes resistance when change is not accompanied or preceded by effective communication. Change is also a part of the life cycle of any product. When we speak of different stages in the life cycle of an organization or a product or service, change is implied. Abrahamson (2004) believes that without pain no change is possible and justifies that either one must change or perish. Why, then is change in the corporate world a topic for discussions, for theory formation and framework building? Focusing on the personal perception of change management this paper analyzes the factors that influence change as has been seen during the semester projects. The change management process studied during the semester will be reviewed along with the skills necessary for change. Change can occur in an organization for varied reasons ranging from change in the stage of the life cycle, to change during mergers and acquisitions, during downsizing, restructuring and during expansion and growth (Stanleigh, 2008). Change, in fact, is essential for progress as the human mind always seeks something new, something different, something exciting. However, I never realized that change could require so much planning to be effective. Having spent hours on the topic and having read about how changes have been implemented within different organizations, I realize that change has to be effectively managed. When I com pare it with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life, I find change in our life has to be equally well managed. Change cannot be a hap hazard process. This paper will reflect on the change management process adopted by Apple and McDonald's and what planning went behind the change. Critical Review We were first analyzed the organizational change undertaken by Apple. The drivers of change at Apple were competition, finances and open unidentified markets. These were arrived at through SWOT analysis and Five Forces Model which helped to understand the initiative for change undertaken by Apple. However, it appears that AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s focus was on enhancing profits as the employees as well as the customers were confused with so many models available at the same time in the market. They did not have a customer-centric approach which is essential for any new product launch. They did not try to understand customer needs and communication was lacking at Apple. Communication and information must precede c hange. This sounds so simple to implement but what I have learnt through reading and find it extremely interesting, is that communication is not a simple term that encompasses the quality or the ability to talk. It does not merely mean to inform or speak; it also means to listen. Having the strength and courage to listen to subordinates in an organization enhances communications (Pfeffer & Sutton, 1999). Thus, listening is also a part of communication. The
Monday, September 23, 2019
Why was decolonisation so rapid - Essay Example The political situation after World Wars I and II in Europe was one of the most influential factors in decolonization process. The new influential parties started to develop in colonies with the objective to resist the royal rule. South Asia, for example, has much advanced in political power: Gandhi has played an important role in raising the question of national sovereignty. Communistic parties of North Africa were also demanding the end of colonial power. France and Britain remained the key political players in Europe, however, they failed to restructure their colonial administration and the process of decolonization became unavoidable. Few years after the war, both French and British empires were struggling to preserve their colonial ruling. The British Empire became the Commonwealth of Nations, while France was classified as the French Union or the Community since 19451. French politicians still believed in the unity of colonies, while the British colonies moved towards the autonomy. The political change was required Ã¢â¬â the first step in this direction was political participation of local population instead of European administration in politics. Colonial agencies became elective governmental bodies. In 1950s these formations acquired the national status and the national leaders of colonies did not see the need to be part of the colonial government. France and Britain were unable to control the political life of their colonies any more and one after the other, the colonies became independent. African and Caribbean colonies received sovereignty peacefully. There were tensions only with two colonies: Indochina and Algeria. France was much determined to preserve political power over these two colonies. Between 1947 and 1954, the French were fighting against the local armies with the effort to prevent the collapse of empire2. The situation in Vietnam (1954) was not better as well Ã¢â¬â the French military forces were demolished
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Monumental Architecture Essay Monumental architecture is large man-made structure of stone or earth. I live in New York, one of the largest cities in the world. We have many examples of the monumental architectures. The top ten of them are the Statue of Liberty, GrantÃ¢â¬â¢s Tomb, Grand Army Plaza, Washington Square Arch, Columbus Circle Fountain, The Grand Army Plaza, Literary Walk, Richard Morris Hunt Memorial, 107th Infantry Memorial, and the 911 Memorial. I have been living in New York City for the last twenty years. On September 11, 2011, I arrived at work as usually fifteen minutes earlier and while I was parked my car I heard on the radio that one of the airplane struck the World Trade Tower. I came to my floor and told all my workers about it. Our building was located in the East part of New York; we could see the Twins Towers from our windows. From our windows, we saw how the second airplane struck the second tower. Panic struck everyone. In the Towers and the area surrounding, there were friends and relatives, we feared for their lives. We tried to reach them but the phone lines were over-flowing and we cannot reach them right away. From the windows in our offices we saw how the building collapsed. After that our director decided to close our office early in order for us to go be with our families. From work I went directly to school to pick up my daughter and on our way home I tried to explain to her what happening in the morning. My friends and relatives safely escape from the area of Twins Towers but many other lives were lost. As a tribute of remembrance and honor to the lives lost on September 11, 2001, a memorial was built by the name of the 911 Memorial. This memorial is located at the World Trade Center site, the former location of the Twin Towers. The memorial contains two square pools in the center, where the Twin Towers once stood surrounded by the forest of trees. The design of memorial is thirty feet below street level which was started in the year of 2006. This design contains the footprints of the buildings that stood. On September 11, 2011, a dedication ceremony was held at the memorial. The memorial officially was opened to the public on September 12, 2011. The museum of this tragedy opened around September 11, 2012. Many people now visit the memorial to remember not only the lives lost but of the heroes who went into the buildings to save others. www.911memorial.org http://www.cnn.com/2011/12/29/us/new-york-911-memorial/ http://timeline.national911memorial.org http://www.nationalgeographic.com/remembering-9-11/place-of-remembrance/ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/44483977/ns/us_news-9_11_ten_years_later/t/memorial-plaza-nyc-opens-public/#.UP7cZ_JX-KI Rttp://gswho went into the firre
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome In Stories English Literature Essay Post traumatic stress syndrome is a mental disorder that arises from exposure to a traumatic, awfully frightening or life threatening experience happening either to oneself or to a close friend, relative or colleague. The symptoms of this disorder are manifested a while after the experience. The symptoms include reliving the experience, avoidance and hyper arousal. One can re-experience the trauma through flash backs, nightmares, anxiety and frightening thoughts. Avoidance involves keeping away from places, objects or events that remind one of the experience. A person may sink into depression. There is also a loss of interest in activities that once seemed enjoyable. The individual in question also experiences emotional numbness. In hyper arousal, the person gets tense, is easily upset and over-sensitive. The person is also hyper watchful. For diagnosis to be made, the symptoms must have lasted for at least a month. The onset of these symptoms is also delayed by weeks or months. Even though this disorder has been in existence for a long time, it was formally diagnosed in 1980. It has been given other names such as shell shock, stress syndrome, traumatic war neurosis and battle fatigue. In the First World War, the victims of this disorder were said to suffer from gross stress reaction and surviving soldiers of the Vietnam War were said to suffer from post Vietnam Syndrome. With the above background on Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome, one can clearly state that the disorder cannot be dissociated from surviving troops of a major war. For the soldiers who survive a war and its traumatic experience, there is no escaping the symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome and in most cases, life is never the same again. This statement can be evidentially supported by the three war stories given. In the first story, the narrator is the brother of a soldier who survived the Vietnam War. As stated above, the troops in this were said to have Post Vietnam Syndrome (Medicinenet.com, 2010). The narrator reminisces the good times he shared with his brother before he joined the army and was sent off to war. The brother, Henry returns a totally changed person but not for the better. In the second story, Krebs is a soldier who returns from war long after the war heroes have been celebrated. Much as he tries hard to live a normal life, no one understands him and he seems to be living in a world of his own. The third story is narrated by a former war veteran who talks about his experiences with his fellow soldiers in the war. He talks about how a true war story is not moral but full of atrocities. He however says that the truth of a war story is someones experience and is judged by the listener. Story One: The Red Convertible In the first story, Henry is a guy full of life and enjoying it to the fullest. He shares a warm relationship with his brother Lyman the narrator. He is also very friendly and can make conversation even with strangers. On their summer tour, he invites a girl he had not met to ride with them so they could take her home and they end up spending a substantial amount of time at the girls home. He is also funny and makes people laugh like when he carries the long haired girl on his shoulders so that he can have a feel of having long pretty hair. He is adventurous, which is clearly shown when he and his brother spend the whole summer driving across the country. Henry is also depicted as being very enthusiastic and lively. He is spontaneous and not afraid of taking risks. Together with his brother, he spends his pay checks impulse buying a car even after he has been laid off. During their summer tour, Henry is depicted by his brother as having a carefree attitude. This is shown in the way he relaxes under a tree napping peacefully with no cares in the world and enjoying the moment while it lasts. Henry then joins the army immediately after the summer trip. He is sent off into the Vietnam War and it takes about three years for him to return home. By the time he returns home, he is a completely different person. The narrator indicates that the change is not for the better. He also says that even though the war is over in the governments mind. It is going to be long before it is over in Henrys meaning that the war experience will be engraved in his mind for a long time. Lyman also goes on to say that it is going to be hard to expect his brother to change for the better. Research shows that war veterans who develop Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome have difficulty re-entering the society after war and having normal relationships. They bear invisible wounds and battle with their emotions. The shame they fight with causes them to isolate themselves. They are unable to talk about their war experiences with anyone. A significant number will commit suicide when they lose the battle within themselves (Sederer, 2010). In this story, we see Henry struggling to fit into the society once more. As is the case with most war veterans, he struggles to have normal relationships with his family and friends and doesnt talk about his war experiences. As one veteran says, war stuff is stuff you cannot talk about in the civilian world, that is so detached from the war (Simon). Avoidance (Medicinenet.com, 2010), a symptom of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome sets heavily on Henrys life after the war. In addition to not talking about his experiences in the war and avoiding the subject altogether, he also avoids close relationships for example the cordial relationship he shared with his brother before the war. He loses interest in the red convertible that he once liked very much which worries his brother. Nothing seems to matter anymore and according to his brother he was such a loner. He seems emotionally numb and when he laughs, he seems like he is crying. He is also no longer the jolly person he was, always cracking jokes and as his brother says, you cannot get him to laugh. Henry also becomes very quiet. He also cannot sit still and is ever moving up and down. This is in contrast to his relaxed carefree self before when he would sit down whole afternoons without moving. He seems to always be on the lookout for something and was always tense, sometimes gripping the armrest of his chair with all his force as if afraid that if he let go he could crash. This indicates hyper arousal a symptom of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. You can tell that Henry is reliving his experiences when he bites through his lip. Blood flows down and he does not even notice it. It soaks his bread but he continues eating it which is probably a scene that he lived through in the war. He also kept wearing the clothes he had come back in. When he sets about to repair the red convertible, he works nonstop to the point of his brother thinking he will freeze himself to death with the work, an indicator that he still remembers the hard days at war. At one point, Lyman can feel the struggle that his brother is going through. Despite all that he tries to be normal and to fit into the society once more. There are times that he seems better and acts normal. Post Traumatic Stress has however got the better of him and no matter how hard he tries, he finds that a war veteran does not get over his experiences and become normal that easily. He does not live in the same world as other civilians and soon enough, he becomes one of the statistics in the record of war Veterans who survive the war ordeal but lose their inner battle to suicide (Sederer, 2010). Story Two: Soldiers Home In this story, Ernest Hemmingway tells a story of Harold Krebs a soldier who returns home after fighting five major battles. On his return, Krebs tries hard to fit into the society. It does not help things that he returns long after the heroes have been celebrated. Before the onset of symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome, Krebs is seen as a sociable person. On his return, he goes to the poolroom to try and reconnect with people. He also somehow never stops liking his sister as stated, He liked her. She was his favourite sister. This indicates that he shared cordial relations with the sister and still liked her. There is also an indicator that Krebs was ambitious as indicated when his mother speaks to him concerning his fathers worries; He thinks you have lost your ambition. He however seems to have been very detached from his father. When Krebs comes back, he initially wants to talk about his experiences in the war. However, no one gives a listening ear and his stories do not seem interesting enough compared to the atrocities that people had heard from other veterans. Soon enough he is forced to lie in order to get people to listen to him. Clearly he is having difficulties re-entering the society after war and fitting in. This is aggravated by the fact that he did not receive a heros welcome. According to a Vietnam veteran, soldiers were likely to suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome when they are not welcomed back home as was the case with most Vietnam veterans (Wellness Directory of Minnesota, 2006). Krebs badly wants to resume his normal life but no one understands him and he seems like he is living in a world of his own. Even when he tells lies, the stories are still not interesting enough. The society that is supposed to help him deal with his experiences and cope with Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome fails on its part. One researcher says that after returning home, A combat veteran needs time, support and understanding of other people (Wilson, 2009), and have an opportunity to talk about and, eventually, to feel the emotions associated with (Wilson, 2009) the trauma. As is the case with an Iraq war veteran (Simon), Krebs true war story is incomprehensible by the people around him. Krebs is pushed by the society he is living in into assuming that nothing happened and he has to go through avoidance to face the situation. Avoidance sets in in full gear in Krebs life and his once normal relationships fall apart (Medicinenet.com, 2010). The once sociable Krebs now decides to seek refuge in solitude at the library. This is clearly observed in victims of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome as is noted by one medical doctor (Sederer, 2010). In his words, he says that the shame they soldiers go through in the battlefield has them isolate themselves. Krebs also avoids intimacy, romantic relationships and any other thing that would make his simple lifestyle of avoidance any complicated. This is characteristic of the sufferers of PTSD. He does not want to come out of his shell and face anything that would complicate his life further. He starts living in fear of facing reality. He tolerates his mother but he does not love for. He wishes anyone would understand the world he is living in and the fact that he does not love anyone. He has undergone emotional numbness and also lost interest in things that he had previously liked (Medicinenet.com, 2010). To avoid being pushed further, he promises to go and look for a job. In relation to fellow soldiers, Krebs seems to think they understand him more. However, when he talks to them, he relives his experience at the war which was scary and is forced to face reality. This makes him guilt laden and all the things he did nauseate him. He feels guilty that he survived and shame for all the things he did in the war. Story Three: How to tell a true war story This story is told by a soldier who is trying to find out the mystery behind a war story in relation to reality. He talks about his fellow soldiers in combat and the stories they tell while trying to tell a war story in order to be understood. In the story, there is Bob Kiley whose best friend and fellow soldier Curt Lemon is killed and Mitchell Sanders who is seeking to be listened to and understood. The soldiers in this setting are suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. Rat Kiley is struggling to stay in touch with his feelings when his best friend dies. He is emotional and humane and despite the war experience, he still has a very vulnerable part of him. According to the narrator, a true war story is never moral otherwise it wont be believed. Consequently when Rat writes an emotional and moral letter to his friends sister, she never replies. The frustration of not being understood leads to him being insensitive and emotionally numb, a case seen in PTSD (Wilson, 2009). A little later, Rat is talking dirty and calling the sister a dumb cooze. He has a lot of anger which according to a war veteran is a symptom of PTSD and is misdirected. Rat unleashes this anger by mutilating a baby buffalo as the other soldiers look on without saying much. They clearly understand what he is going through. According to the narrator, war is a mysterious experience. It is rarely about acts of heroisms and more about anger and inability to deal with terrible and awkward experiences effectively. A war story only makes sense to the narrator and only the listener can judge the truth of the story. Its also about what is real to the story teller whether they die or live after the incident. The narrator portrays the challenges of a soldier in the battle for example, when Mitchell is telling a story; he really wants to be believed. He keeps asking, Understand me. Even though he tries to act as though he tries to act as though he does not care whether he is believed, the narrator can tell from his sadness that he wants to be believed. The narrator also expresses symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. He relives the experiences he has been through and has the images engraved in his mind twenty years later. He can remember the last moments of Curt lemon and how he looked like. He can also remember getting Curt Lemons body parts of the tree; I remember the white bone of an arm. He tells the story in a very indifferent way portraying emotional numbness (Medicinenet.com). He ends the story by talking about the true picture of war as the memories and the unique experience a soldier goes through which involves being afraid and is nothing close to heroic acts. He echoes the words of a former veteran who says that what is learnt in combat is never forgotten (Wellness Directory of Minnesota, 2006) The other soldiers also portray their share of PTSD symptoms through the weird experiences and the noises they hear that lead them to doing things that even their commander would not understand. All in all, the soldiers understand each other because they have been through similar experiences but their experiences are beyond civilian comprehension. Conclusion Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome is an experience all too familiar with most war veterans. Their suffering is however incomprehensible to most civilians and their experiences are not understood by civilians. At the end of a war, the soldiers may receive a heroic welcome but due to the bizarre experiences they go through, their lives are never the same again and it takes a lot for them to fit back into the society.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Machiavelli's views have been misinterpreted since his book was first written, people take him in the wrong way, and are offended by what he says. Careless readers take him in a completely wrong way, such as they think that he believes that the end justifies the means, that a leader should lie to the people, and that a ruler has to rule with force. In actuality, Machiavelli means no such thing, he says that there are times when the common good outweighs the means, and the morality of a rulers actions. He also says that you cannot be loved by everyone, so try to be loved and feared at the same time, but of the two, choose to be feared. The Prince is considered to be one of the most important of nonfiction literature written in the history of mankind. It gave an accurate and truthful description of the method of governing. Machiavelli understands the importance of a military force, and that a country has to be kept in order, even if that means lying to the people to get them to fight against a common foe. In Europe, the church was entangled in politics, and everything else, but Machiavelli suggests a secular state, which would allow the leader to do that which is necessary for the country and for his continued reign, though not necessarily moral.The ends do not justify the means, yet sometimes if the end is necessary for the continuation of a society, then the means do not have to be morally bound. A ruler cannot please everybody all the time, so therefore, he has to be cunning in order to maintain control. There are times when a ruler needs to lie to the populace, in order to reach a goal that is better in some way for the nation. By tying the church to the government, people expected the government to behave morally, but often times, an entirely moral ruler will be overthrown. A ruler cannot show any weakness, or else he will no longer be feared enough to keep him in power, and he will be overthrown. In The Prince, Machiavelli asserts that it is best for a ruler to be both feared and loved, but if he cannot be both, it is much better to be feared. People are unlikely to overthrow a ruler that they fear, because they fear the punishments for failure.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Articles of Confederation As the Revolutionary War came to a close, the Continental Congress introduced a new form of government as it instituted the Articles of Confederation. The articles established a democratic government that granted the states sufficient power to control their own laws and regulations. However, the Articles of Confederation were ineffective and, hence; they failed to provide a strong government. During this time in an American history, often known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Critical PeriodÃ¢â¬ , regionalism and anarchism began to expand as a result of the following reasons. The Continental Congress controlled public affairs, but the Articles of Confederation neglected to grant the Congress power to enforce laws or unify the States. Under the Articles, the United States lacked a solid monetary system to ensure that taxes would be paid and to protect commerce, both nationally and foreign trade. Also, without leading national figure, the strong unity America gained during the Revolutionary War began to diminish along with the nations overall strength. Being that Congress had only the power to recommend actions to the states, the Articles were incompetent. Law and recommendations could not be further enforced by Congress. Each state obtained its own form of a constitution, monetary system and method to enforce the laws. Each state committed strongly to the state laws and self interests rather than to the recommendations of Congress. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of unity began to plummet as regionalism pitted one state against another. For example, Rhode Island voted to reject CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation of an impost on imported goods because its leaders felt the idea objected the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution. (Document A) ... ...ct to gain the use of the Mississippi, and it could only negotiate a treaty with Spain, but it was ineffective. During this Ã¢â¬Å"Critical PeriodÃ¢â¬ , the Articles of Confederation failed to provide the United States with an effective and powerful government. The American sense of unification began to dissolve compared to the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes during the Revolutionary War. The states were divided separately into one nation, rather than unified into one nation. Each state, with its own interests, currency, and government debilitated economic progression. Congress had no authority to enforce recommendations, or to unify the states. Without the presence of a president or national court system, it became impossible to make necessary changes within the nation. If this young nation was to survive, the Articles of Confederation needed to be altered or replaced. The Articles of Confederation Essay -- Governmental American History E The Articles of Confederation As the Revolutionary War came to a close, the Continental Congress introduced a new form of government as it instituted the Articles of Confederation. The articles established a democratic government that granted the states sufficient power to control their own laws and regulations. However, the Articles of Confederation were ineffective and, hence; they failed to provide a strong government. During this time in an American history, often known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Critical PeriodÃ¢â¬ , regionalism and anarchism began to expand as a result of the following reasons. The Continental Congress controlled public affairs, but the Articles of Confederation neglected to grant the Congress power to enforce laws or unify the States. Under the Articles, the United States lacked a solid monetary system to ensure that taxes would be paid and to protect commerce, both nationally and foreign trade. Also, without leading national figure, the strong unity America gained during the Revolutionary War began to diminish along with the nations overall strength. Being that Congress had only the power to recommend actions to the states, the Articles were incompetent. Law and recommendations could not be further enforced by Congress. Each state obtained its own form of a constitution, monetary system and method to enforce the laws. Each state committed strongly to the state laws and self interests rather than to the recommendations of Congress. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of unity began to plummet as regionalism pitted one state against another. For example, Rhode Island voted to reject CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation of an impost on imported goods because its leaders felt the idea objected the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution. (Document A) ... ...ct to gain the use of the Mississippi, and it could only negotiate a treaty with Spain, but it was ineffective. During this Ã¢â¬Å"Critical PeriodÃ¢â¬ , the Articles of Confederation failed to provide the United States with an effective and powerful government. The American sense of unification began to dissolve compared to the colonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes during the Revolutionary War. The states were divided separately into one nation, rather than unified into one nation. Each state, with its own interests, currency, and government debilitated economic progression. Congress had no authority to enforce recommendations, or to unify the states. Without the presence of a president or national court system, it became impossible to make necessary changes within the nation. If this young nation was to survive, the Articles of Confederation needed to be altered or replaced.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Nature Vs. Nurture in Sherri S. Teppers The Gate to Womens Country :: Psychology Tepper Gate Womens Essays
Nature Vs. Nurture in Sherri S. Tepper's The Gate to Womens Country Personality traits, are they learned or innate? Is it possible that once one is conceived his/her life and ways of communicating with other individuals are already set in stone and parents, environment, and peers have absolutely nothing to do with the ways in which one acts. Or could it be a combination of both genetics and learning? Reading The Gate to Womens Country by Sherri S. Tepper, I believe playing with the idea of learned or innate traits are the backbone for her novel. Knowing very well the nature vs. nurture perspective can be controversial to many, giving the reader an idea to ponder and debate. This novel is set in a time 300 years after a convulsion, a great war that was brought upon by men. It was men who were the diplomats and men who made the speeches about national pride and defenseand we died (pg. 301). The beginning of the novel starts out as a reflection and continues to be a reflection until the end, although the ways in which Tepper words happenings, put the reader in the moment so that he/she forgets they are reflecting and thinks that each happening is going on as you read, giving much more meaning to the piece. The reader is taken on a journey through the experiences of one girl from adolescence to adulthood, and as she comes to understand the way of life in Womens Country so do we the reader. Stavia (the main character) is reflecting everything that has made her who she is up to that point in her life. When Stavia was young the only worry she had to deal with was the coming and going of the male counterpart. Yes, it was a confusing emotional act at a young age, which would only become more confusing and emotional with age and wisdom. Stavia is a very intelligent, trustworthy, honorable, curious, open, loving girl, and to a point she conforms to the ways in which the council believes are appropriate. I believe the reason she is conforming is because either you agree with the council or you leave womens country. The councilwomen have worked to long and hard to have a revolting girl destroy what they have come to create and with high hopes of perfecting. In this novel there is a division of the two genders and they are put in their own communities, known as Womens Country and the Garrison, with the exception of few men who chose to return to Womens Country.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The play, the Tragedy of Othello and the Moor of Venice, written by William Shakespeare has many underlying and reoccurring themes throughout. One major theme is that of betrayal and loyalty. During the entire play every character is either loyal to, or betrays another character. The theme of betrayal and loyalty is seen through every character and every act in the play especially in Iago, Desdemona, and Othello. Every character that is portrayed as being loyal is disloyal, and every character that is portrayed as being disloyal is loyal. No one ever knows who and who not to trust, and this adds a lot of drama and build up to the story line. This play shows you that you can never trust anyone, and that you should keep your friends close but your enemies even closer. In such a web of love, hatred and betrayal, it is really hard to say who are the protagonist and the antagonist. But, through these gray areas, one could see that sometimes such strong emotions could change one to another. Yet with A. C. Bradley, the play was described as Ã¢â¬Å"by far the most romantic figure among ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s heroesÃ¢â¬ (Shakespearean Tragedy, 1). This is an irony at play. The description is quite unexpected since it is about a man who murders his own wife. Nonetheless, it could be observed that this crime resulted from OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of hate for Desdemona which had when their relationship began, started as an overwhelming love for her. The transformation from love to hate that transpired within Othello also inflicted the characters Iago and Roderigo and hatred induced them to murder of innocent people as well. RoderigoÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Desdemona was transformed into hate towards any man that he thought was loved by her. IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s love for his job and his wife, Emilia changed into a destructive hatred of Cassio and Othello. As a result of their hatred Cassio, Emilia, and at the end they were killed. The connection between love and hate in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ is the ugly feeling of jealousy that caused such transformations. Jealousy can be described as a fear of losing something or someone that is valuable (Godfrey 2). As minor as this feeling appears to be by that definition, it can take on varying degrees of damaging behavior. Othello, Roderigo, and Iago had become paralyzed by jealousy. Their thoughts, actions, and behaviors were ruled by it. Jealousy caused their inability to act rationally. They became paranoid and unable to love. Roderigo begins with a small jealousy of Othello for being married to Desdemona. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t until Iago makes Roderigo believe Desdemona does not really love Othello that Roderigo becomes destructive. Roderigo pays Iago for this false hope that he will be with Desdemona (1162). When he believes he is getting closer to being with her, however, Iago tells him that it might not happen because Desdemona is in love with Cassio (1169-70). Roderigo is greatly angered by this and resolves to do what it takes to stop Cassio from getting Desdemona even if it means taking his life. His attempt to kill Cassio, however, is unsuccessful, and instead he is the one injured (1175). Roderigo is no longer consumed with thoughts of being with Desdemona. Instead he is consumed with feelings of hatred toward those who might have her love and attention. Othello had a deep love for Desdemona in the beginning of the play. He was however also very insecure of DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s love for him (Mabillard 1). He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why she would go against her father and her society by marrying a man that is black (1). The only reason that he can come up with is that she married him for his courageous journeys (1). In Act I scene iii he explains to the Duke, Ã¢â¬Å"She lovÃ¢â¬â¢d me for the dangers I had passÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare 1157). In Act III scene ii he tries to put his doubts to rest by telling himself that DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s compassionate and virtuous nature makes it possible for her to love him (Mabillard 1). However, when Iago starts to plant ideas of her infidelity into OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s head the doubts resurface and his insecurity becomes stronger than ever before (2). His insecurity about his worth to Desdemona combined with the reaffirmation from Iago of her affair creates his heated jealousy. After Iago provides the last piece of proof that Othello needs (the handkerchief in Act IV Scene i) Othello only has hatred for Desdemona. But it must be understood that, Desdemona, is a character of both betrayal and loyalty. Yet in a very different way, for when she is disloyal to a character it is out of loyalty and love for another character. She must lie to her father to be with her true love Othello Desdemona tells her father that she is loyal to him, but has to choose Othello over him (Othello, 1, 3, 208-220).. In relation to the history of the Moors in Europe, the Moors were looked down upon as with DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s father looked down on Othello. MoorÃ¢â¬â¢s were seen as being barbaric and ruthless warriors, only bred for being ruthless warriors and nothing else. That is why it is so profound that Desdemona is so undeniably in love with Othello and will do whatever it takes to be with him, even turn her back on her own family. Desdemona is always loyal to Othello throughout the play and Iago does his best to disprove this by getting into OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Othello believes Iago and says Desdemona is disloyal and cheats on him and does not trust her when she says, Ã¢â¬Å"For Ã¢â¬Ëtwas this hand that gave away my heart. Ã¢â¬ (Othello, 3, 4, 52) Desdemona does her best to prove to Othello that it is only he that she loves and no one else. Othello has been deeply brainwashed by Iago and is scared into believing that Desdemona may be cheating on him with Cassio. This causes Othello to seek revenge on Cassio, and ruins his relationship with Desdemona. Iago really is the mastermind of all betrayals and jealousy, and Othello falls for it badly. As Albert Gerard explained in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëegregiously and AssÃ¢â¬â¢, The Dark Side of the Moor: A View of OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s Mind,Ã¢â¬ if Desdemona failed him than everything failed him (5). He was dependent on her for representing truth in the world (5). She represented an ideal image of purity to him (5). In Act III scene iii he exclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"If she be false, O! Then heaven mocks itselfÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare 1191). Since Ã¢â¬Å"the visionÃ¢â¬ of her is so highly valued, the possibility that she is a lie devastates Othello (5). D. R. Godfrey notes that OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy is strong enough to make him crazy (Ã¢â¬Å"Shakespeare and the Green-Eyed MonsterÃ¢â¬ 2). He loses the ability to think rationally which is why he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seek the truth from those supposedly involved and the circumstantial evidence is enough, in his eyes, to justly murder Desdemona (2). Godfrey further supports OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s inability of rational thought by his idea that Desdemona and Iago have slept together Ã¢â¬Å"a thousand timesÃ¢â¬ (3). If Othello were thinking rationally, he would have known that there couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been enough time for them to have that deep of an affair (3). His hatred of Cassio is apparent as he tells Iago Ã¢â¬Å"Within these three days let me hear thee say that CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s not aliveÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare 1196). Before he comes to believe that Cassio is having an affair with his wife, Othello valued him enough to appoint him as lieutenant. Othello transforms from a man who loves deeply and lives with honor into a man full of hatred and vengeance. Like Roderigo, such a transformation occurs because of jealousy brought on by the words of Iago. Iago makes the cause of his loathing for Othello and Cassio apparent in the first scene of Act I: CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment as lieutenant being one (1145) and the second being his suspicion that Othello has slept with his wife, Emilia (1163). D. R. Godfrey describes these experiences to Iago as Ã¢â¬Å"devastating, to the point of working a profound and sudden change in Iago, a virtual metamorphosis Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Shakespeare and the Green-Eyed Monster 6). OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s trust of Iago shows that he had once been a loyal, honest man (Watkinson 2). He even refers to him as Ã¢â¬Å"honest IagoÃ¢â¬ on multiple occasions (2). Watkinson explains that OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s dependency on Iago becomes even stronger when Iago brings the supposed affair to his attention (Ã¢â¬ The Ironic Interdependence of Othello and Iago 3). He also manipulates Roderigo into thinking that he is only looking out for his best interests. IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy breeds a stronger hatred than OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s and Roderigo; so strong that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care who gets hurt in his revenge (Godfrey 6). He wants everyone to suffer like he has (6). Iago disregards RoderigoÃ¢â¬â¢s well being when he tells him that he should get rid of Cassio so that he can be with Desdemona. He also disregards the life of Desdemona by telling Othello that she is sleeping with Cassio. He directs his hatred towards anyone that seems to live honestly (Godfrey 6). The more his plan seemed to work, the more his hatred was acted out. In the last scene of the play, Iago kills Roderigo for the fear that he might reveal his plan (Shakespeare 1222). He then calls Emilia a Ã¢â¬Å"villainous whoreÃ¢â¬ and stabs her after she tells Othello that she had picked up that handkerchief and given it to Iago at his request (1231). Iago represents the strongest form of hate in Othello. While Roderigo and Othello took out their hatred on only those that they thought had caused it, Iago took it out on those innocent as well. In Act III Scene iv, Emilia tells Desdemona that Ã¢â¬Å"They are not ever jealous for the cause, but jealous for they are jealous; Ã¢â¬Ëtis a monster begot upon itself, born on itselfÃ¢â¬ (1201). Othello, Roderigo, and Iago were each responsible for letting their jealousy get out of control. Although Iago was partly to blame, Othello is responsible for not relying on contrary evidence to prevent him from murdering Desdemona. Roderigo is responsible for letting his hatred lead him to attempting to murder Cassio. Jealousy turned romantic love into anger and hatred for Othello and Roderigo. IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s jealousy, however, manifested from a love of power, making it all too dangerous. He sought out power by manipulating others to get the revenge he wanted on Othello and Cassio. All three, however, are examples of the destructiveness that can come from love struck by jealousy. Paradoxically it is Iago who tells Othello Ã¢â¬Å"O! Beware my lord, of jealousy; It is the green-eyÃ¢â¬â¢d monster which doth mock the meat it feeds onÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare 1188). Ultimately, this becomes the downfall of everybody.
Monday, September 16, 2019
This model demonstrates that the autonomous factors are unite on the left side and the reliant variable is joined on the correct side of the model. In this table all the free factors are centering or specifically influencing the reliant variable and the needy variable is client maintenance. The theory for this exploration is given underneath:2.7 ResearchHypothesis Following are the exploration theory of the examination: H1: Service quality has positive effect on the client maintenance. H0: Service quality has no positive effect on the client maintenance. H2: Customer fulfillment has positive effect on the client maintenance. H0: Customer Satisfaction has no positive impact on client maintenance. H3: Customer reliability has positive impact on the client maintenance. H0: Customer reliability has no positive effect on the client maintenance. H4: EnvironmentÃ has positive effect on the client maintenance. H0: Environment has no positive impact on the client maintenance.3. MethodologyIn this exploration the easygoing examination has been utilized to clarify the impact of the free factors (benefit quality, consumer loyalty, client steadfastness, condition t) on the needy variable (client retention).The information for this exploration has been taken from 300 members by utilizing the instructive and mental estimation table (Krejcie, Robert 1970) . Add up to number of 160 surveys from out of 300 was returned which were totally and accurately filled by the members which were worthy for the investigation to go ahead. In this examination the helpful testing is been utilized to gather information from the members to bear on the exploration.3.1 InstrumentsIn this paper we have utilized the strategy which was beforehand embraced in the examinations, the poll was made out of aggregate 19 questions. First4 questions were of individual statistic and remaining 15 were of the 5 factors which were utilized as a part of this paper. Measurable bundle for sociologies (SPSS) rendition 20.0 was utilized for the investigation of the factors gathered through the survey.3.2 DateAnalysis procedures Unwavering quality examination is utilized as a part of this paper to check the dependability of the poll. As it is said in the past investigations that dependability examination acknowledgment run is over 0.70(Nunnally, 1978) . Pearson connection examination is utilized to check the connection between the diverse factors. What's more, the direct relapse investigation is utilized to discover the impact of the autonomous factors on the reliant factors.4. DataAnalysis and Results The Frequency table demonstrates that the information gathered from respondents incorporate 60% male and 40% female. Table no.1 Elucidation Keeping in mind the end goal to confirm the entomb thing consistency of things, Cronbach's alpha test was keep running on spss. The Cronbach's alpha test is utilized to recognize that how much our reactions on our examination are solid .The Cronbach's alpha shows esteems in above table including the estimation of every factor .The qualities are above to the standard esteem proposed by (Nummally, 1978) of 0.70, which exhibits that our instrument is dependable and we can irrefutably apply different measurable tests and decipher the results with assurance. Understanding Connection test was actualized to break down the connection between factors. Connection table proposed every one of the factors were emphatically associated to customer buy goal. The most connected variable was CL having Pearson Correlation estimation of r(120) = .648, p
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Celestial Seasonings was found by small countryside family aiming to bring natural herb benefits to the customers in 1969. CelestialÃ¢â¬â¢s herbal tea was sold through local stores initially. Celestial Seasonings went through major change when it was bought by Kraft Inc in 1984. Kraft brought Celestial products to new markets before selling it back to the CelestialÃ¢â¬â¢s old management in 1988. The selling and re-purchase of Celestial benefit the company to get into national market and exposure to wider consumer range.Throughout the decade of 90Ã¢â¬â¢s, company extended its product line as per market demands. As result herbal supplements, medicinal teas, herbal supplement capsules and many other products were added to celestial product range. Company had good growth till end of decade until some of its product start showing the declining trend. There are some problems relating to celestial Seasonings progress which include ethical issues, quality concerns and limited target ma rket.Celestial Seasonings makes its entire product range from natural herbs but still company cannot promise to make people healthy. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a product not medicine so it cannot claim for treatment of illness and claiming so raises ethical issue. Quality concern is another problem with the celestial Seasonings products. 71% people consider Celestial Seasonings products safe for health while 29% people have some concerns about safety. They think that being natural doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make it safe. Herb source authenticity also raises questions about quality.Celestial Seasonings offer a wide range of product but major target market is baby boomer ladies with 35 to 54 years of age. Its tea products have high price than other tea competitors. This raises the problem of limited target market. As a solution of ethical problem, company must not make unjustified promises. Product statements can show that these can help living healthier life rather than its impression of a curing product. Qual ity can be assured by club marketing programs and virtual tours. Sustainable sourcing assurance can also help improving customersÃ¢â¬â¢ confidence.Club marketing programs can be launched and events can be held on farm and production locations to improve customer perception for product quality. Market development is solution to limited target market issue. New target markets can be explored. Company can go global and enter the markets where tea is a part of tradition like England, India, and Pakistan. Celestial Seasonings has kept its promise to bring natural herb benefits to the customers. Company can overcome current problems and increase its profits with market development, club marketing programs and keeping the ethical concerns.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The Han dynasty stressed effectiveness in their tools, as well as using technology to prevent natural disasters and thrive in their society. The Romans, however, marveled at their civilizationÃ¢â¬â¢s innovations, but rejected idolizing those who worked with tools and crafts. The control of water was significant in both the Han dynasty and the Roman Empire (Docs 1 and 8). Han officials believed water conservation officers and hydraulic engineers should work together to prevent flooding (Doc 1). The writer requested the formation of water conservation officers in each district, and inspections of waterways, walls, etc.Along with necessary repairs (Doc 1). Document 1 is a letter from a Han government official concerning flood prevention. Considering the status of the writer of document 1 and the fact that the letter is instructional, it seems reasonable to assume he knows what heÃ¢â¬â¢s talking about. The Romans also used water engineering, aqueducts, to supply the cities with water (Doc 8). Frontinus boasted about the abundance of water for Ã¢â¬Å"public and private uses (Doc 8). Ã¢â¬ As a water commissioner, the writer of document 8 only talks about the positives of the water system, possibly to make himself look respectable in the eyes of his superiors.An additional document from a common citizen of Rome describing how aqueducts positively affect their life would support Frontinus, who only provides an official government point of view. Both the Roman and the Han officials wanted to use technology to control water for the benefit of the citizens, but for the Han dynasty, it was more necessary to thrive. Huan Tan, an upper-class Han philosopher, speaks of Fuxi, the wise emperor and inventor of the pestle and mortar (Doc 3). After FuxiÃ¢â¬â¢s invention, there was an improvement in technology with the creation of water power (Doc 3).The attitude toward technology in this document is as technology as a Ã¢â¬Å"giftÃ¢â¬ from enlightened emperors. Huan Tan , because a philosopher, would praise technology from the emperor as Confucian philosophy views the emperor as a kind father-figure. Huan Tan may have written this document praising the emperor as a way of flattering the current government in hopes of achieving a higher official position. Like Fuxi, Tu Shih, governor of Nanyang, was also a wise and enlightened leader (Doc 4).Tu Shih developed a water-powered blowing-engine that was a labor-saving device, to facilitate cast-iron agricultural implements. Ã¢â¬Å"Tu Shih loved the common people and wished to save their laborÃ¢â¬ (Doc 4). Technology in this document is also seen as a Ã¢â¬Å"giftÃ¢â¬ from enlightened leadership. The writer of this document could have been trying to please the emperor in order to reach a higher position in office. Both of these documents show that the Han dynasty saw technology as a way to improve in their society and for the goodness of their people.Cicero, an upper-class Roman political leader desc ribes those who work with their hands as vulgar or common, believing that gentlemen do not work with their hands (Doc 5). Cicero speaks of hired-workers and craftsmen as having unfit occupations (Doc 5). Technology is perceived as necessary in this document, but not fit for enlightened minds. Cicero cannot accurately judge technologyÃ¢â¬â¢s impact because he is a member of the elite and does not work with technology. According to Seneca, an upper-class Roman philosopher, technology takes being smart, but not enlightenment (Doc 7).Seneca does not believe in the importance of individual technological creations and believes there is a difference between those who work with their hands and those who work with their minds (Doc 7). Both documents show negative Roman attitudes and are degrading towards technology. Huan Guan, a Han government official, suggests that good government should correct the situation of sub-standard tools (Doc 2). Rather than him being negative towards technolog y, he is being negative towards the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role. He believes that technology is vital to peasant production and is the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to support it (Doc 2).Plutarch, a Roman high official describes Roman leader, Gauis GracchusÃ¢â¬â¢ improved road building in a glorifying report (Doc 6). Technology according to this document has a practical side, but also one of aesthetics (Doc 6). As a high-ranking official, Plutarch praises another political leader possibly yearning to obtain a promotion. Both documents show technology as necessary, but the Han dynasty shows a need for technology and the Roman empire makes improvements that are not necessarily vital to their society.Additional documents by women would have been helpful in exploring whether there are similarities or differences in Han and Roman attitudes according to gender. Also, documents by workers or the lower class would have given different perspectives toward attitudes and views on technolog y, instead of high officials who do not personally work with technology. The Han dynasty, because of natural disasters and the good of their civilization, were pushed to improve on technology while the Roman empire admired their great, unneeded innovations.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Lipoprotein metabolism - Essay Example This part accounts for the largest part of the cholesterol that is quantified as HDL-C in clinical laboratory. Ã ±-HDLÃ can be fractionated further by density into HDL3 and HDL2, by apolipoprotein composition and size. About 5-15% of apo A-1 in the human plasma is linked to preÃ¢â¬âÃ ²-electrophoretic mobility particles. This is further differentiated into preÃ¢â¬âÃ ²3-LpA-I, Ã ²1-LpA-I and preÃ¢â¬âÃ ²2-LpA-I particles. These particles where reverse cholesterol transport occurs. This occurs in extravascular compartments. It is not clear where the HDL particles and preÃ¢â¬âÃ ²-electrophoretic mobility originates from. There are several mechanisms that have been proposed including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), direct interaction between cell membrane and free apolipoproteins, hepatic lipase (HL), release during the HDL interconversion by phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and direct secretion from enterocytes into plasma. High-density lipoprotein is produced in the intestine and liver. It plays a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport. By accepting free cholesterol from the peripheral tissues, HDL lowers the blood cholesterol levels. HDL exchanges lipids and proteins with other lipoproteins. It donates apoproteins E and C11 to nascent VLDLÃ¢â¬â¢s. HDL also produces a paraoxonase enzyme. This enzyme inhibits the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. The HDL precursor particles can also absorb free cholesterol from the cell membrane in a process mediated by apoA-1, ApoA-IV and ATP binding cassette transporter 1. ApoA-1 is the HDLÃ¢â¬â¢s major apolipoprotein. It activates the cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) (a lecithin enzyme) that esterifies the free accepted cholesterol to increase the efficiency of cholesterol packaging for transport. By acquisition of additional esters, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins, the particles of HDL3 are transformed into HDL2 particles which are relatively la rger. By estension, HDL plays a role in transferring the
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Communication of corporate social responsibility - Annotated Bibliography Example Becker-Olsen, K., Taylor, C., Hill, R.P., and Yalcinkaya, G. (2011). A cross-cultural examination of corporate social responsibility marketing communications in Mexico and the United States: strategies for global brands. Journal of International Marketing, 19 (2), 30-44. The study highlighted the impact of corporate social responsibility communications on the perceptions of organizations along with their brands among consumers in two distinct cultures. It was primarily assumed that the global brand positioning theory is widely applicable, explaining that consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions can be improved if the brand is considered as global. On the whole, CSR communication can bring about positive outcomes for firms; multinational companies that highlight global CSR initiatives and efforts can bring about favorable perceptions among the public. Nonetheless, there is still a great need to consider the significance of certain needs based on local values and experiences. Bhattacharya, C., and Sen, S. (2004). Doing better at doing good: when, why, and how consumers respond to corporate social initiatives. California Management Review, 47 (1), 9-25. As the paper highlighted the impact of corporate social responsibility communication on the public, findings showed that consumers are more sensitive and demonstrate greater reactions towards negative CSR information compared to positive CSR information.... Through the use of content analysis methodology, it was found out that although Spanish companies associated CSR with great importance, usage of websites as a means of communication was not entirely effective. Information was limited regarding the concept of CSR as well the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement with environmental and social initiatives, thus the need to further look into the type, quality, and quantity of CSR information that should be communicated through websites. Chaudri, V., and Wang, J. (2007). Communicating corporate social responsibility on the internet: a case study of the top 100 information technology companies in India. Management Communication Quarterly, 21 (2), 232-247. The paper looked into the communication of CSR carried out by the top 100 Information Technology (IT) organizations in India in relation to their use of websites. Specifically, the study examined the importance of communication, scope of information, and presentation style. Findings showed that th ere are only a small number of companies that integrate CSR information in their websites. Moreover, many of these companies do not utilize their websites with regards to the style and amount of CSR communication. Although CSR communication is not necessarily absent in IT companies in India, findings demonstrated there is inadequate CSR communication. David, P., Kline, S., and Dai, Y. (2005). Corporate social responsibility practices, corporate identity, and purchase intention: a dual-process model. The literature review of the study emphasized the importance of communication as a means of promoting the program as well as its performance to stakeholders. It was also asserted that initiatives for CSR communication can affect
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Project- Administrative Agencies - Research Paper Example The paper will also present a personal critique of the agency and make recommendations for the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Purpose for creation of Environmental Protection Agency The Environmental Protection Agency was created with the aim of merging related roles that were formerly administrated by different agencies and organizations. Its overall purpose was however the protection of Ã¢â¬Å"human health and the environmentÃ¢â¬ from activities whose unregulated operations pollutes the environment (National Research Council, p. 8). The agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s specific purposes are however diverse and includes ensuring measures for good quality of the atmosphere, ensuring that water and water bodies are free from pollutants, promoting hygiene among the society and implementing laws for safeguarding the environment. Its purpose therefore majorly concerns environmental safety for healthy lives (National Research Council, p. 8). The agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s parent act The Environmental Protection Agency w as a creation of the Ã¢â¬Å"National Environmental policy ActÃ¢â¬ 1 that was legislated in the year 1969 and signed in the year 1970 (National Research Council, p. 7). Under the acts provisions, the government declared intentions to ensure favorable living conditions that would forester human social, economic, and political developments. The agency was then formed to implement the legislation with CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ approval under the name of Ã¢â¬ËEnvironmental Protection AgencyÃ¢â¬â¢ (National Research Council, p. 7) Historical background leading to the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s formation Environmental Protection Agency was a culmination of an already developed concern over the environment. Trends into its formation can be traced back to the industrial revolution error. Before the revolution, there existed few pollutants and the environment was considerably safe. However, invention of motor vehicles and further additive to the locomotivesÃ¢â¬â¢ fuels identified grounds for regulatory m easures. As a result, the Ã¢â¬Å"Clean Air ActÃ¢â¬ 2 was approved to regulate environmental concerns that had been created by smog. This was followed by another environmental legislation in the year 1965, Ã¢â¬Å"Motor Vehicle Pollution ActÃ¢â¬ 3 that aimed at regulating motor vehicles emissions and the Ã¢â¬ËAir Quality ActÃ¢â¬â¢4 was then formulated in the year 1967 to further control emissions. Consequently, the Environmental Protection Agency, under the National Environmental Policy Act was created in the year 1970 to further the objectives of regulating environmental pollution. The agency was therefore created with the idea of facilitating a healthy environment through regulating pollution agents (Biggs, p. 377). Functions of the agency Functions of the agency majorly entail implementation of its objectives and extend to roles of implementing the objectives. One of the agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s functions is therefore to ensure that air pollutants are eliminated for a quality enviro nment. Other functions include controlling chemical pollution and other forms of pollution as well as implementing rules that are set under its jurisdiction. The agency, through its statutory powers also formulates regulations to govern mass sources of pollutants such as agricultural and industrial sectors. It also issues license for operations and revokes licenses of operators who defy regulatory measures. The agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s functions also include promoting awareness of its programs to the public and other stakeholders and
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Exchange Rate Risk - Assignment Example Economic exposure involves potential negative effect on business future cash flows from foreign subsidiaries due to fluctuation of exchange rate (Madura, 2012). The various hedging strategies that GBATT can employ to cushion exchange rate risk entails futures contract, forward contract, and options contract (Madura, 2012). GBATT can employ the futures contract to avoid exchange rate risk by entering into a contract with a financial institution on the price and quantity of foreign currencies that will be applied at a specific date. Similarly, the forward contract can be applied by specifying the price at which the foreign currency will be exchanged at with a financial institution in a contract. The options strategy on the other hand will involve entering into an agreement that will give GBATT to sell the foreign denominated currencies but not an obligation at a given rate to domestic currency at specific date. Consequently, the three hedging strategies will enable GBATT to avoid exchange rate volatility. One of the firms that employ hedging strategies to cushion exchange rate risk is Coca Cola Company to reduce translation exposure from its foreign subsidiaries (Coca-Cola.com, 2012). In addition, Dell Corporation has adopted hedging strategies to cushion exchange rate fluctuation (Dell,