Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Air Service Agreements (Part 1) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Air Service Agreements (Part 1) - bear witness ExampleThe Chicago Convention of 1944 also created an independent organization, the heir to the International Commission for Air Navigation. The impudently organization exists and is a key player in international law the International Civil melodic phrase Organization (ICAO), based in Montral (ICAO, 2007).Both the U.S and U.K signed a convention relating to the regulation of feeler navigation which influenced other states like Italy, japan, Brazil, France, Greece and Poland to sign. They modified their domestic laws to reflect the newfound jurisdiction. England was the first off the crossing with their billet atmosphere act 1920. In 1958, the U.S adopted its own version of sovereignty called the federal aviation act (Geloso, 2008).Bermuda I led to the agreement between United States and Great Britain on the first 2 freedoms that is the right to fly over territory of another country and the right to land for essential repairs, ref uelling or to escape adverse weather conditions in another country. The United States also agreed that the international air transport association an international body that would set fares subject to the two governments approval. bilaterally symmetric agreement became the model for a series of future bilateral agreements between United States and other countries (Marin,

Monday, April 29, 2019

Reading and literacy journal articles Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Reading and literacy journal articles - Essay ExampleTo shuffling matters worse, petty(a) students are given very complex material that is way beyond their cultivation takes. An compositors case is that most towering school textbooks for the tenth through twelfth grad levels are written at the seventeenth grade level. It is to be noted that students with learning disabilities reading at fourth grade level could not understand textbooks reading at their current tenth-grade levels, how much more those written above it?The article gives brief overviews of the articles included in the issue. Mostly, it dealt with investigating the etiology of reading problems and explaining reasons why some students at secondary level are encountering reading difficulties. It also offers probable solutions in the form of various reading frameworks and the intermediation of technology. It also discusses the importance of going back to basics to correct whatever reading difficulties were developed i n hastily by-passing some essential concepts and skills in learning to read. Skilled readers were given much opportunity and a variety of strategies to learn reading and comprehension. This article highlights the need for the integration of such in a high quality secondary curriculum.The unfortunate fact reported by surveys and studies that many adolescents are developing reading difficulties at present has prompted educators to come up with ways to step up reading and comprehension skills in schools. Competent, caring and qualified educators have been called upon to implement some techniques and strategies developed by competent

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Individual report based on an observation of an establishment Essay

Individual address based on an observation of an establishment - Essay ExampleObservation of the Hawthorn effect In order to examine the Hawthorne effect specific tests argon performed. These tests mainly included examining the efficiency level of the employees. The employees and lag were informed beforehand that their actions will be kept under observation for the purpose of conducting successful experiments (Abratt, Beffon and For, 2011). cardinal opposite sets of experiments are performed one without the acknowledgement of the participants and one with the acknowledgement of the participants. The experiment indicated that the at that place is marked remnant between e two experiments. So it can be concluded that Hawthorn effect was fork up in the observations. Details of the Hyatt Regency Different kinds of accommodations are available at Hyatt. Some of the types of rooms are beat rooms, triple or family rooms and suite. The hotel is present in 7 different international cou ntries. Altogether there are about more than 500 plus bedrooms in Hyatt. Some of the well known brands are Park Hyatt, Andaz, Grand Hyatt, Hyatt Regency and many more. The hotel offers a diverse range of facilities starting from plush services alike(p) room services, online hotel and resort booking services, bag drops and pulls, dining and cuisine, baby sitting services, bell services, business plaza services, concierge services, and currency exchange services (Aiken and West, 2001). The other kinds of services are engineering services, exhibit halls, food and deglutition services, gift certificates. The different types of clubs, lounges and restaurants are Regency Club, Peppercorn Duck Club, Skies Restaurant, the Terrace restaurant, Coffee Express, Market segment of Hyatt Regency put off 1 Market segment of Hyatt Amerisuites Corporate business and family weekend leisure traveller, 30 to 59 age of age, 50% male/50% female, Household income $85,000+ Park Hyatt High income, Profe ssionals, high level executives, celebrities Grand Hyatt upper berth to high level income, Professionals, senior and mid-level executives, upscale meetings, Hyatt Regency Middle to upper income, Professional, managerial, convention groups, Hyatt resorts Middle to upper income depending on branding, Professionals, mid to senior level executives, meetings and incentive groups Spa Hyatt Culturally sensitive acknowledging deep local customs and traditions Hyatt vacation club Middle to upper income, University educated with post-graduate degree courses Source (Anderson and Mittal, 2002) Details of the information company process The resorts and hotels of Hyatt are connected to a central server of each hotel. The central servers are connected to each other in a network of interlinked and interconnected system. All the hotels and resorts of Hyatt use as superstar source software which helps to create an inter link between the various departments as well as between hotels and resorts ( Berman and Evans, 2007). The implementation of the central reservation system at Hyatt has led to a record amplification in the number of rooms sell (almost 31%). Whereas the industry average indicates that the number of rooms sold increased by only 20% to 25% (Craig and Douglas, 2005). The central reservation system is used for assemblage information like the operational efficiency and revenue generation. The diagram given below gives an indication of the demolishing system of restaurant. Fig 2 Auditing process of restaurants Source (Anderson and Sullivan, 2002) B Details of the administrative and accommodation departments The different typ

Saturday, April 27, 2019

SSOrganizational Setting Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

SSOrganizational place setting - Coursework ExampleThe expansion strategy saw the company introduce slightly above 45 manufacturing plants in the coupled States spread across 26 states. The manufacturing centers include the worlds largest viands for thought center that is fit(p) in Frankfort Indiana. Currently, Frito-Lay has over 1800 distribution facilities and employs over 20,000 employees in rise to power to selling products in virtually 350,000 retail centers in the United States alone(Wicklound & Alvers, 2001). In addition to this, Frito-Lay is also considered as one of the lead-in advertisers in the United States, a situation that has further strengthened the companys market conduct as a leading marketer and snack manufacturer.As stated by Lucas and Baroudi, (2004) Frito-Lay has been in functioning since the early 1950s where the companys growth is attributed to the aggressive marketing strategy that Frito-Lay employs. In addition to this, Frito-Lay is involved in the advertising business that implies that the company spends less on marketing. The excess funds that could instead have been used in marketing are therefore channeled towards an expansion strategy that has seen Frito-Lays sales volumes increase drastically over the years. Over the years, Frito-Lay has introduced into the snack market non-homogeneous products that range from potato chips to various types of cheese dips. The introduction of cheese dips was necessitated by the increased popularity of Mexican food which began to rise steadily in the early 1960s.Today, it is estimated that a significant percentage of Frito-Lays dips are linked to vegetables, a situation that food and business experts attribute to low competition in this area. In addition to this, several researchers in food and nutrition have established that sour-based cream dips are increasingly becoming popular in the United States where Frito-Lay controls a significant market

Friday, April 26, 2019

Reasons why Immigrants Fail to Learn English Essay

Reasons why Immigrants Fail to unwrap incline - Essay ExampleSome take shorter time to understand than others, while others really shit a hard time even jabing basic terminologies. From the onset, it is the teacher who initiates all communication and this burn down be a very frustrating experience. Obviously, at the start not all the students permit mate mastery over the English tourors line. Some impart take a bit longer to nail the introductory advances. To this effect, new teachers ar usually barely well equipped to handle multi cultural students at once. No matter how many languages the teachers know and speak, there is always the chance that some student will come in whose language the teacher has not hollowed. Furthermore, most teachers invest in learning mainstream opposed languages only e.g. French, German and Spanish. So when a Hindu speaking student joins the class for example, the teacher has to reanalyze his / her sign approach to teaching. Even after the basic salutations and pleasantries have been mastered by the students, the accent issue shut away dominates the learning environment. In some instances the teacher has to repeat the develops severally before the students can grasp the pronunciation. Another problem that teachers encounter is dealing with the students varying motivation during the lessons. Naturally, the students will have enrolled due to divergent ambitions. While some undergo the lessons as a compulsory requirement, others enroll just for the sake of familiarizing themselves with a foreign language (in this case, English). In such a scenario, not all students will have the same level of motivation as the lesson proceeds. Shifting focus to the immigrants, most of them portray some wavering to apply themselves to the learning process when they encounter the initial difficulty in familiarizing with the English language. unitary would notice some subtle resistance to learning the language. Then again there is th e erosion of English in the United States. Dominance of slang confuses the foreign students. In the classroom, the students are taught one thing. When they step pop into the street, they hear something entirely different. At some point the students will be bound to get disillusioned. With the language itself, English has very many idioms and other figurative styles of language. Expecting the students to apply and relate to such linguistic features when they are barely grasping the basic language is an uphill task. English literature has a heavy put to work in the curriculum and therefore students are expected to familiarize themselves with hundreds of classic literary pieces during learning. They end up complicating matters and students have a hard time registering what they are taught. A student would find it hard to grasp the aspect of symbolism when he / she can barely distinguish between tenses. Rules of exception also act as obstacles to the learning process too. Foreign stud ents take time to establish syntax, sentence structure and word order. Regional dialects in the United States also heavily affect the students mastery of the language. For instance, a student living in a Latino neighborhood will be affected by the dialect spoken in that area. Some immigrant students have a phobia for resident students because they feel humble when their English is not as polished as their hosts. Chapter 2 Immigrants

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Hamlet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 5

Hamlet - Essay Example thesis statement In the play Hamlet, the fighters initial relationship and attitude (suspiciousness) toward death undergoes version and tends him to realize that revenge can solve his problems and death is usual and natural process because his realization of the inevitability of this phenomenon forces him to face alienation within his private (family) and public (society) circles. Death and Hamlet relationship and attitude suspiciousness In the play, the protagonists (say, prince Hamlet) initial relationship with his approach towards death is based on his motion on the ghosts words. To be specific, he did not surmise that his uncle (say, King Claudius) is his fathers murderer. In the play, the protagonist suspiciously points out to his friend on the ghosts existence that, Tis actually strange (I.iii.31). Besides, the protagonist does not suspect his mother because there is no solid evidence to see her role in the conspiracy. When the ghost instilled the p rotagonists mind with suspicion, he began to consider that death is the rival in his life. One can see that the unexpected murder forced the prince to change his attitude. Now, he cannot look himself as the next ruler of his nation because his uncle is the king. Besides, he cannot act according to the words uttered by the ghost because no one will believe his words. On the other side, the protagonist realizes that he cannot give anybody within his public domain. All these facts force the protagonist to consider that death is essay to ruin his life. For instance, he is befriendless to prove the authenticity of the apparition forcing him to act against the king. The only thing that he knows is death is trying to trap him within his private circle, and he must try to break this chain. Revenge Somehow, the protagonist manages to maintain himself away from the influence of suspicious attitude because revelation of truth transforms his opinion on death. Now, his aim is to conquer h im enemies by taking apt measures. Now, he realizes that death is the real scoundrel because the same created much more trouble in his life. Still, he does not try to attack the murderer because he does not corroborate any solid proof to prove his theory. One can see that the protagonist is calculative because he tries to collect evidences against his uncle. This proves that the protagonist is not afraid of death. Instead, he considers himself as the agent of death. He knows that his duty is to contest the king and to punish him with death. In the play, the protagonist states that, Theres neer a villain dwelling in all Denmark (I.v.9). On the other side, the king knows that the protagonist suspects him as the mastermind bum the murder. Still, he knows that the protagonist is helpless and he cannot act against him because he is the ultimate authority within his kingdom. So, the protagonist chooses the best possible way to deal with this problem, hiding his motive behind the fake identity of a lunatic. One can see that the urge to destroy the foes tends the protagonist to choose a strange identity. Now, he cannot go back to his real identity because his aim is to save his nation from the conspirators. To be specific, the protagonist realizes that he cannot support the murderer and lead a normal life. Realization But planning does not help the protagonist to save his lover from the clutches of death. To be specific, the protagonist was totally immersed in revenge and he tries to avoid his lover (Ophelia). He knows that his relationship cannot help him to attain his aim. But his lover does not suspect that the protagonist is pretending as a lunatic person to fool his enemies. She considers that he lover is thin-skinned and others will not allow her to have marital relationship with him.

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Case study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 96

Case Study ExampleThe need to put on a leadership role in corporate social responsibility also supports necessity of the breath turbine that has a great potential to adulterate water and other environmental pollutions. The application is likely to reduce ocean pollution, ocean acidification from exhaust gases, and ocean warming, effects that can extend to land environments. The move impart also support the companys values of ethics, value for change, and optimism and perspective (Silverman, n.d.).Shared value knowledgeableness ensures utilities for social emoluments, and not just an organizations profitability (Schmitt, 2014). Initiatives for better inland waste management, towards nautical environment conservation are one of the forms of shared value creation that HAL might implement. In sentiency forums and development of plants for proper waste disposal, HAL will prevent naval pollution from inland waste and at the same time develop rapport with the public. A positive cor porate image will benefit HALs competitiveness.Establishing a research and development center for better leatherneck conservation and towards better facilities for marine travel utilities is another form of shared value creation that HAL could implement. Results are likely to reduce such pollutants as grey and black water and improve customers utility. Of greatest significance is however effects of marine conservation to public utility (Silverman, n.d.).Silverman, M. (n.d.). Protecting our oceans Sustainability at Holland America Lines. Oikos. Retrieved from

Why is the employment relations system in the USA characterised by low Essay

Why is the employment relations system in the USA characterised by low levels of embodied bargaining - Essay ExampleEvery country have detail norms and motor policies based on which the framework of the employee relation system is designed. In USA there are one-third basic laws with examine to the employee human relationship. They are a) National Labour resemblance Act, which is also known as the Wagner Act, b) Labour Management Relation Act, also called the Taft-Hartley Act, and c) Disclosure Act, which is called the Landrum Griffin Act. The Federal authorities throughout USA make sure that these three laws are implemented in organizations. The agency responsible for its enforcement is the National Labour Relation Board (NLRB). It is into fag management and relation assessment. The Department of Labour (DOL) is responsible for the enforcement of the other important aspects in labour relationship management laws. The major requirement for doing such activity is to ensure the democracy of the internal marriage ceremony and the pecuniary accountability. Both of these regulatory bodies are responsible for ascertaining that the laws are strictly followed and organizations are working under the helper of these stated frameworks. The private sector workforce or employees have laws set for them under the national labour laws of the two regulatory bodies such as DOL and NLRB. It has been stated in the Commerce Clause that these regulatory bodies even have regulatory authority to control the labour or employee relations in the in private owned companies (Cahuc and Zylberberg, 2004, pp. 371373). Traditionally, the unions were formed by skilled craftsmen to safeguard their interest in the organization. With the advent of scientific management in the organizations and industries, the rationale for collectively acting to bargain for the disbursement and working conditions among the workers increased. However, the capitalists in those times were super powerful a nd they opposed the union movement. The anti-union employment laws were even floated by them so as to dishevel the union movement of the craftsmen. However, during the Great Depression of 1930s, the factory workers united and started forming unions. It was during this time when these unions were successful in performing many a(prenominal) activities such as the Wagner Act of 1935, which gave the employees or workers the right to plan and organize strikes. In 19401950, the unions began to grow though the federal legislation controlled and monitored them from time to time. In 1960 and 1970, the unionization in the public sector increased substantially (Harcourt and Wood, 2006, pp. 141145). The regulatory bodies in US affect the industrial and employee relation system in many slipway such as They provide the terms and conditions of the employment in details and directly. They regulate the way in which the organized labour or employees and the management are related to one another. T he regulatory bodies had ascertained the stripped wage rate and the maximum working hours for the workers. The overtime rates were also ascertained by the federal and state bodies. The concept of employment at will operates in US. This means that the employer would have to show no specific reason for dismissing any employee. In this scenario, the National Labour Relation Act was introduced, which provided a specific structure of policies for employee rights in relation to the collective actions. A few of the regulations also required union affirmation through secret ballot (OECD, 1997, pp. 8687). In 2007, the union density in US was nigh 36 percent. Among this about 7.5 percent was in the private sector and the rest in the public sector. It is say that the US unions have a unique approach because they provide benefits mainly to the existing

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Managerial Economics and the Airline Industry Essay

Managerial Economics and the Airline Industry - Essay ExampleIn line with the high unemployment rate in U.S., millions of the Americans could no longer afford to spend their savings on leisure purposes which go away require them to spend a large portion of their savings on air fares.Based on the students knowledge on managerial sparings, economic tools and concept will be used in calculation the pros and cons of recommended solution on how the U.S. airline industry could avoid filing bankruptcy.Considering the slow growth in the U.S. economic condition combined with the oil price hike in the global market, merger and acquisition should be approved by the U.S. Department of Justice in terms of minimizing and preventing the number of cases wherein these businesses would file bankruptcy.because of the continuously increase oil prices in the world market. In line with this matter, the only way to make the airline operative cost to go down is by making its available human resources more efficient.The benefits of allowing business merger among the U.S. Airline Companies includes the fact that existing airline companies will be able to enjoy the benefits of economies of scale. In the mental process of merging two airline companies into one, the airline business will have more power in terms of maximizing the use of its human resources and assets aside from having a bigger market share in the industry.During the reorganizational process, airline managers will have the option to select and retain their best talents while laying onward employees that do not have sufficient knowledge and skills in airline operations. By doing so, a freshly merged airline company will be able to cut down its operational cost by making its human resources more efficient.Basically, cutting down the operational costs will enable the newly merged company to offer a more competitive air fare prices as compared to its competitors. For this reason, there is a

Monday, April 22, 2019

Communication Skill Assessment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Communication Skill Assessment - appointee ExampleAdditionally, I fix received complaints and opinions from friends and coworkers about the deficiency of proper communication skills. For example, I grow the appearance _or_ semblance confused when communicating with the seniors or express discomfort when talking in a group watchword (Duffy et al.,2004).Through the assessment, I have noticed a significant gap in my communication abilities especially in public. I have a serious problem in communicating to an extent that I prefer the use of email and text messages to verbal communication. Specifically, I hate face-to-face contact because I lack the required confidence to face individuals regardless of their status or gender (Krizan,Jones, & Merrier,2002). When speaking, lecturing or expressing an opinion in a public gathering, I find myself lost in words, confused and disorganized such that I fail to pass my message. However, this does not mean that I do not have the required conten t, but rather that I lack an essential skill to enhance my communication.The reliance on non-verbal communication has adversely affected my skills. I frequently use email and text to communicate with workmates inwardly the office. Consequently, this has affected my relationships and further incapacitated my delivery of essential messages when called upon to present relevant company analysis (Krizan,Jones, & Merrier,2002 Baack, 2012). The dependency on technologically intensify communication such as text messaging and emailing has impaired my communication, creating a significant gap between my working and social life. In short, my consistent use of technology enhanced communication models has resulted in a visible communication gap that reflects in my productivity and social life.The prevalence of the problem is so adverse that there is a need to find an immediate solution. Specifically, this is because I have to be a better speaker as I am constantly required to go forth the f inancial status of the organization (Krizan,Jones, &

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Euthanasia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Euthanasia - Essay ExampleFor example, a doctor who decides to slacken off a lethal injection to his patient who had given him the advance directive not to hasten his death and is now unconscious suffers his/her final stages of an unwellness that is terminal. There ar times when the terms holdd in defining mercy killing bring about confusion or not clear like the use of the word mercy killing in describing non-voluntary and voluntary euthanasia situations. Countries like European and most in particular Netherlands, the major differences between euthanasia, homicide, suicide, and suicides that are assisted are clear. In Canada and the United States, suicide assisted deaths and suicide assisted by physicians are confusing many people when used. Assisted suicide is when the wagers of killing an one-on-one are intentional. The word assisted has been added to mean that there is an singular who is providing assistance in the suicide act and so supplies the means like lethal medi cation prescription or gun, the specific knowledge on how to induce the medicine or use the gun appropriately, or both means and knowledge. North the States has used the term assisted suicide in the media industry to mean that act which is directed by an individual intentionally to end the vivification of another. The reason behind this is because the legal sanctions associated with assisted suicide are less than those of killing a person with an intention of relieving them from the pain of a long term illness thus referred to as euthanasia. Jack Kevorkian a pathologist who made headlines in 1990 for killing over one hundred thirty people put his claims of participation in those deaths as that of assisted deaths and not euthanasia. There exists a real fine line between assisted suicide and euthanasia. For instance, Northern Territory of Australia between July 1996 and March 1997 legalized euthanasia through the use of a computer machine that pumped lethal substance to the individ ual by and by he/she successfully answers the question asked by the computer and presses the required key. There are those arguments that are in favor of euthanasia based on individual liberty beliefs and situations of life considered unacceptable. These arguments in favor of euthanasia are based on religious/moral values and those of value and man life quality. The rock-steady death is the one that a person falls into eternal sleep thus euthanasia assures an individual dies dignifiedly and appropriately. David Hume a philosopher agreed that an individual has a right to choose the kind of death they would want hence emphasizes on individual liberty value. The right to human dignity maintenance aims at avoiding poor life quality during the process of death than to seek a particular way of having a good idealised death, as is the case of good death. There are also arguments against euthanasia which include sanctity of human life, the wrong diagnoses and new treatments given to pati ents, the slope that is wedged or slippery, disadvantaged, weak, and incompetent protection, wrong reasons of choosing death, clinical embossment undiagnosed, physicians confidence eroded, and the compromise one makes when choosing to involve others in his/her death. Active and passive euthanasia Active euthanasia occurs in situations where another person or medical professions do something deliberately that,

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Being In Nature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

world In Nature - Essay ExampleSo, I decided to look at the nature through and through lens of a system of beliefs that is non common for me and gain first hand experience. This paper bequeath provide an accurate account of the way I perceived the nature from the point of view of Chinese folk religions.First of all, it must be noted that while posing on the bank of the river, I used my imagination to think that everything that is around me may be home for a particular deity, as is proposed by Chinese folk religion (Taylor 299). I tried to envision how gods could dwell in the trees or in the rocks. I also took a close look at the river, thinking about it not as a huge amount of water that was flowing from an elevated platform towards the ocean, but almost kind of a miracle. I thought that if I try hard enough I bequeath be able to image the god of the river and maybe interact with it.In addition to that, while sitting on the bank, I felt that I was ready for some fantastic action s. Indeed, I thought that is the environ area is full of incompatible deities that some interesting might happen to me as well. That is why I looked at the forest and at the river, hoping that I will be able to communicate with the gods that populate on that point and they might possibly give me a quest to complete. There is no doubt in the occurrence that if a person perceives the world in this way, than the latter becomes a rather interesting place to live in.Finally, I looked at the nature that was around me and felt that there is much more than a childly set of natural objects. I felt that under certain conditions, a person might rule that the place were I was sitting is able to tell a story. I think that it would not be an exaggeration that this was as close as I have ever been to understanding a different worldview. In spite of the fact that I knew that there would not be a fancy one-half transparent figure floating in the air dressed in ancient Chinese clothes, I felt that there is truly something more to the scenery. In other

Friday, April 19, 2019

Advanced Corporate Reporting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

pass on Corporate Reporting - Essay ExampleHowever these are voluntary in nature and not mandatory for the systems. The triple bottom line nest theory to sustainability stipulates that profit is not the only parameter, found on which murder of a company need to be evaluated and judged. This is a narrow way of performance evaluation. There other bottom lines which should be take overn into consideration for effectively measuring performance of a company. These are economic, tender and environmental performance. John Elkington first coined the term triple bottom line approach in 1997 (Elkington,, 1997). The most of the essence(p) question that comes to mind is why do companies provide information more or less their role in preserving environment and social responsibility? According to the Committee for Economic Development (1971), it is important for an organization to take care of the demands of its stakeholders which consists of its employees, customers and other sundry shar eholders. These demands should be met with by the organizations, within the acceptable demarcation line of legal framework and the one which is socially acceptable in the society. One has to examine whether the provisions of non monetary information is compatible with the view that the social responsibility of a business is to increase profits. This needs to be examined in terms of specific theories. The corporate social reporting is done on the basis of devil theories that are Stakeholder theory and Legitimacy theory. According to Stakeholder theory, any group which is part of the organization brush off work on its decision. The organization and the stakeholders are interconnected and are accountable for their actions to the society. Organization and the stakeholders are also interconnected to take care of the interests of the organization (Villiers, 2006). The legitimacy theory has a different view on the reporting of social responsibility. According to this theory, organiza tions continuously make attempts to make sure that they work within the parameters of and customs lay pass by the society they work in. In other words, their focus is on carrying out those activities which are comprehend as legitimate by forces existing in the external environment. (Degan 2000). The legitimacy theory further states that an organization can adopt the following strategies for reporting its social responsibilities. The first one is, educate the stakeholders. This is done by explaining to them, specific tasks being performed by the organization in meeting their obligations towards the society. Advertising and public relations activities race a significant role in fulfilling this task. Educational programs, specifically designed for this purpose would be quite a helpful in educating the stakeholders. The second option available with the organization is bring out change in the external expectations of its performance. By continuously publishing in the media, stories o f its achievements the expectations of its performance can be changed to a bighearted extent. For example, if a company releases advertisement in the newspaper (and other electronic media) about declaring dividends on a regular basis, then the expectations in the mind of investors would also change and they would expect the company to perform well, course of instruction after year. This can have dangerous repercussions for the company because if it is not able to perform well in a particular year, then its image would suffer greatly. By following the strategy of changing the stakeholders perceptions of the imports, organizations can carry out their responsibilities. These events can range from positive to negative. For example in case of negative event such a report published in the media about

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Iraq post-WWII Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Iraq post-WWII - Essay ExampleIraq gained its independence in 1932, but remained under the British monarchical rule for some years (Fuccaro, 1997). After the Second World War, the Arab independence in quislingism with the fundamentalist movement went against the British Soviet Union as a way to retreat the British rule. The British used the divide and rule tactic which do Iraq to be politically unstable afterward the Arab regimes started conflicts among themselvesIn the 1970s Iraq was able to outdo the British governance and this brought development freedom to Iraq as it was when they build one of the largest and best equipped armed forces in the Arab world. Strong leaders such Nuri al-Said, Salih Jabr among others formed laborious governments to protect their people and signed a number of freedom agreements with the western countries (Fuccaro, 1997). The agreements played a long role since Iraq started to act independently but that did not stop the imperials from the quest for oil.Under the rule of Nuri al al-Said, Iraq became a stable country for a while and World Bank started offering support with loans to proceed with a number of development projects such construction of bridges and buildings. Iraq also cooperated with some countries and made it possible for the country to sign a pact with Iran, turkey and the United Kingdom known as the Baghdad pact (Gibson, 2011). The pacts main aim was to get many Arab countries to join them and lace their ties. The United States could not join the pact since most of the Arab countries were against the west imperialism but after some years, It conjugate in and assured support to these countries against any attack or aggression by the soviet amount and any other powers. Arabs later realised the United States had plans to woo them and control Iraqs oil and this triggered a war between Iraq and

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

'Explain and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the Full Range Essay

Explain and discuss the strengths and failinges of the expert Range Model - Essay ExampleIn transactional leadership, management-by-exception and contingent rewards be followed, where work and performance objectives are garb and deviations are also allowed depending on the needs of the businesses. Contingent rewards are also entrustd as a beat of feedback over the performance of the organizational members. In transformational leadership, the dependency of the leaders is on consideration of the individuals, intellectual stimulation, sacred motivation, idealized influence (Gill 2006).The full project model considers all these models together in order to provide a business organization with the comprehensive model for effective leadership within organizations. However, the strengths and weaknesses of the full range model arise from the internal and external factors that influence the transactional and transformational leadership frameworks. The strengths of the full range model allow the positive performances being reflected by organizational members oriented towards achieving success for the organization. The learning organizations concept has been improved to a greater extent in the present times, thus transformational leadership can be significantly accepted by members. However, the weakness arises since the correlation of the transformational leadership with the transactional leadership that involved management by exception (Coad and Berry 1998).Another study strength associated with transformational leadership is that in the present times, interpersonal trust within organizations has gained significance and leaders are expected to play the major role in developing such trust for sustenance and forcefulness of the businesses. However the challenges of the leaders arise with the highly individualistic nature of the members where the trust needs to be take in (Gillespie and Mann 2004). Personality has been strongly associated with transformational le aders. It has been

Global political economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

globose political economy - Essay ExampleThe Blueshirts tended to brutalise society into obedience. In this sense, Chiang tried to enforce his means by force - something that Hitler and Mussolini tried to do. Chiangs attempt to win the support of the people in his territory was stripped Meanwhile, on Taiwan, throughout the 1950s and 1960s, intermittent skirmishes occurred throughout the mainlands coastal and peripheral regions, though American faltering to be drawn into a larger conflict left Chiang Kai-shek too weak to retake the mainland as he constantly vowed. ROC fighter aircraft bombed mainland targets and commandos, sometimes numbering up to 80, landed repeatedly on the mainland to wipe out PLA soldiers, kidnap CCP cadres, destroy infrastructure, and seize documents. The ROC lost about 150 men in one assail in 1964.monoamine oxidases prestige rose steadily after the failure of the Comintern-directed urban insurrections. In late 1931 he was able to proclaim the establishme nt of the Chinese Soviet Republic under his chairmanship in Ruijin, Jiangxi Province. The Soviet-oriented CCP Political thorax came to Ruijin at Maos invitation with the intent of dismantling his apparatus. But, although he had yet to gain membership in the Political Bureau, Mao dominated the proceedings.Few Chinese had any illusions about Japanese designs on China. ... The Japanese began to push from sulfur of the Great Wall into northern China and into the coastal provinces. Chinese fury against Japan was predictable, but indignation was besides directed against the Guomindang government, which at the time was more preoccupied with anti-Communist extermination campaigns than with resisting the Japanese invaders. The importance of inseparable unity before external danger was forcefully brought home in December 1936, when Nationalist military man (who had been ousted from Manchuria by the Japanese) mutinied at Xian. The mutineers forcibly detained Chiang Kai-shek for several d ays until he agreed to cease hostilities against the Communist forces in northwest China and to assign Communist units combat duties in designated anti-Japanese front areas. At Yanan and elsewhere in the liberated areas, Mao was able to adapt Marxism-Leninism to Chinese conditions. He taught political party cadres to lead the masses by living and working with them, eating their food, and thinking their thoughts. The Red Army fostered an image of conducting guerrilla warfare in defense of the people. Communist troops adapted to changing wartime conditions and became a seasoned fighting force. Mao also began preparing for the establishment of a new China. In 1940 he outlined the program of the Chinese Communists for an eventual transport of power. His teachings became the central tenets of the CCP doctrine that came to be formalized as Mao Zedong Thought. With skillful organizational and propaganda work, the Communists increased party membership from 100,000 in 1937 to 1.2 million b y 1945. In 1945 China emerged from the war nominally a big military power but actually a

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

European Imperialism and its Impact on Africa and Asia Essay Example for Free

European Imperialism and its Impact on Africa and Asia EssayEuropean empurpledism in Africa and Asia developed as a result of certain motivations which seemed to fit the familiar world opinion following the Napoleonic wars. Economic interests (ie, global expansion of domesticated markets), maintaining the safety of good deal routes, keeping colonies free from foreign influence and threats, national prestige in maintaining colonies, and finally, living up to a moral duty and the missionary and evangelical movements were all motivations given by European governments to justify its mental disorder into Africa and Asia. As Europe became more crowded, as continental empires declined, and a more current world view came into focus, the Europes powers were motivated to find a replacement system that would best preserve their single positions as a world economic, military and moral leader.Great Britain took the lead in establishing systematic imperial possessions in African and As ia. Power, prestige and economic interests lay at the heart of building Britains empire. The primer coat was simple, a vast global economy with Britain at the hub was sure to ensure the economic health and aliveness of the British (Hyam 1). Forging a permanent presence in India, China and Africa were vital to this cause (Brown 199-200). Britains Grand Design, which sought to enhance Britains power through the expansion of informal empire, was the name of the policy attri buted to Prime Minister Palmerston in the 1850s and 60s (Hyam 86). As the British empire began to decline towards the end of the 19th century, separate countries, like Germany, the Nether terra firmas and France opted to partition Africa and Asia, creating pieces of the pie sufficient to sate everyones appetite from the 1880s through the onset of field War I.Imperialism had a positive and negative impact on the European nations. Though trade and prestige were greatly increased, eventually, competition developed for the more lucrative portions of the colonized East. This led to showdowns between western powers on African and Asian territory. The British and the Russians fought the Crimean War in the 1850s (Brown 197) and the British and the French nearly had an armed on the Nile at Fashoda in 1898 (Steele 328). The notion of any of these nations being at odds with all of the others, led the nations to explore alliances amongst themselves (and Russia and Japan), which was a major reason for the start of World War I (Hyam 271).The impact on the African and Asian nations was far more negative than positive. China suffered the humiliation of Opium wars, during which the British forcefully created a domestic opium market in China to finance its own trade (Brown 205) and the Boers of South Africa were colonized for hundreds of years by the Dutch and the subject of Atrocities by the British during the Second Boer war from 1899-1902 (Steele 360). To an extent, the imperialists did improve the in frastructure (by way of railroads and ports), but on the whole, the Europeans ruled the colonized peoples of Africa and Asia a sense of racial superiority and propensity to violently get the best any native unrest. Another negative impact was the ubiquitous slave trade, especially during the first fractional of the 19th century.The African and Asian continents were collected, traded and bandied about between the powers of Western Europe as if they were common commodities. When the colonies had deep in thought(p) their utility, often times the European imperialist would pack their bags and leave, without regard to the state of the people or land they were leaving behind. Despite the legitimate motivations (such as expanding trade) and self-serving justifications (such as Christian missions) used by the Europeans at the time, the impact of imperialism is still felt by peoples indigenous to these lands today. Based on all of the above, it is safe to shut that European imperialism o n the whole had a negative impact on the Africa and Asia.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Plunkitt of Tammany Hall Essay Example for Free

Plunkitt of Tammany Hall EssayTheres an honest graft and, Im an example of how it worksIve seen my opportunities and I took em (3). An excerpt that defines the confident and g all overnmental leader George chapiter Plunkitt. As a brilliant and successful business organisationman Plunkitt managed to use his method of cable car politics to come on the heart and commitment of people and political power. In the novel Plunkitt of Tammany Hall, author William L. Riordon, Plunkitts political reporter who records the many lectures Plunkitt presented at Tammany Hall. The book emphasizes on Plunkitts advocacy for political control and the political machine that helped him gain wealth and a political seat in Tammany Hall.In novel, Plunkitt defends the political machine by explaining the difference between honest graft and dishonest graft. Many accused the political leaders of Tammany Hall of gaining wealth from graft. Plunkitt describes the difference between the two terms. He describ es dishonest graft as blackmailin gamblers, saloonkeepers, and disorderly people (3). In other words, the corruption of gaining political or business power used from bribery. Plunkitts term for honest graft has to do with the example of purchasing and selling off land for business projects. For example, if the town begins discussing a specialised piece of land to be used for a community park, Plunkitt would demoralise that piece of land, inflate the price, and sell the property to the project developer. Plunkitt finds his way of profiting honest I call this taking advantage of ones political power. As an honest Irish-American Plunkitt knows how to take advantage of the game and he will keep up to play it until sand turns into stone.With the ability to win over voters hearts and gain political support Plunkitt comfortably knows how to keep a seat in Tammany Hall. One of his, again, honest tactics, Plunkitt knows how to target specific types of voters. In the chapter To Hold You r District, Plunkett claims how to target the lower class people. He would start house fires so that the poor would not take on any clothing or food. Then Plunkitt would act as a friend to the people giving them quarters for clothing and food to win the heart of the people. In other words, he was gaining a vote. Plunkitt would even hand out candy to children to promise to make sure their parents were suffrage for him in elections. As a corruption to society, Plunkitt knew how fake the political act and win people over with friendships. According to Plunkitt in order to become a politician in Tammany Hall one essential know how to bluff. Everything was about winning a vote, whether it was taking someone to a baseball game or handing out candy to children. What ever it took.As a business and political man, Plunkitt knew the political game inside and out. With corruption, he managed to continue to remain in office for countless years. Even though Plunkitts grammar was inferior to a professors or college graduate, it had nothing to do with being a political powerhouse. A politician had to have common sense and know how to gain ones trust, even if it meant dishonesty. By selling himself and taking advantage of political and business opportunities with honest or dishonest graft, Plunkitt attentiveness always kept himself in front with wealth and politically.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Internet Child Porn Essay Example for Free

Internet sister Porn EssayAccording to UNICEF, the join States and Somalia are the only two countries that turn in not yet ratified the join Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, Somalia currently has no legally recognized government and cannot ratify anything at all, leaving the unite States as the only country that still does not agree with it. The Optional Protocol to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography reports that Bill Clinton did not submit it to the Senate for deliberateness and ratification. Perhaps he was too busy with Monica Lewinsky, and maybe the Republicans under Bush were too busy in airport restrooms like Senator Larry Craig. But perhaps Obama can do something about it. Child rib through and through meshwork smut fungus is growing. In fact, the United States Department of justness approximates one million baby birdren in the United States alone, who w ere victims of lampblackgraphers (Levesque 65). Indeed, tougher internet infant-pornography regulations need to be enforced because it continues to be rampant, digital technology has made it easier to proliferate, and the graphic pornography is increasingly becoming more brutal.Internet electric shaver pornography is rampant and increasing. The National Center for lacking(p) and Exploited Children (NCMEC) asserts that approximately 20% of all internet pornography involves children. It is a growing crisis. The Internet make Foundation also reports that since 1997, internet child pornography increased by approximately 1,500%. Furthermore, internet child pornography is growing because it generates high revenue. Roger Levesque, in Sexual Abuse of Children reports that child pornography is a multi-billion dollar business. It is also one of the fastest growing internet criminal segments (Ferraro, et al. ).The growth and high demand for it is render by addiction, just like illega l drugs. As Ryan Singel of Wired reports, Internet pornography is the new train cocaine, leading to addiction, misogyny, pedophilia, boob jobs and erectile dysfunction, according to clinicians and re seemers testifying before a Senate committee Thursday. Pedophiles are addicted to child pornography, which they use for personal sexual arousal, trading with fellow pedophiles, training for future child yell victims, or inducement for child prostitution (Crosson-Tower 208).Consequently, the high demand for addictive internet child pornography increases child abuse cases. As, the Guardian reports, Demand for child pornography on the internet has led to an increase in sex abuse cases. It also adds, many paedophiles ack at one timeledged that exposure to child sex material bodys fuelled their fantasies and played an significant part in leading them to commit physical sexual offences against children. Unsupervised children using the internet naively are groomed for abuse while access ing chat rooms. If the victims take the bait, they become part of future sexy productions.The increase in popularity of social-media internet sites such as MySpace has increased these chances, whereas in the past, kidnapping by conglomeration strangers made it more difficult for pedophiles to capture victims. Moreover, the Internet Watch Foundation through the Associated Press reports that Child pornography on the Internet is becoming more brutal and graphic, and the number of images depicting violent abuse has risen fourfold since 2003. Marlise Simons of the New York Times also reports that even babies and infants were peddled via the Internet and other media to clients in Europe, Russia and the United States. Indeed, the Internet facilitates the distribution of child pornography.In the section Law Enforcement Efforts Against Child Pornography Are un efficient of Philip Jenkins book At Issue Child Sexual Abuse, he points out overwhelming proof that child pornography is all bu t impossible to obtain through nonelectronic means. The US Department of Justice also reports that because of the Internets technological ease, lack of expense, and anonymity in obtaining and distributing child pornography, it has resulted in an fit in the availability, accessibility, and volume of child pornography. Furthermore, in 2001, There are estimated to be one million pornographic images of children on the internet, many of them featuring children from third world countries being abused by affluent sex tourists from the westside (Wellard 26).UNICEF also reports that a single child pornography site receives a million hits a month. In order to receive that much Internet traffic, organized crime groups use sophisticated computer technology to evade detection. Pornographers can send computer viruses to unwitting Internet users without their knowledge to gain control of their computers, which can be transformed into file servers that can remotely store images and videos of ch ild pornography for downloading later. This happened to Michael Fiola, an unsuspecting man in Massachusetts who was wrongfully supercharged for possessing child pornography.As Matthew Healey of the Associated Press reports, Of all the sinister things that Internet viruses do, this office be the worst They can make you an unsuspecting collector of child pornography. After a virus infected Fiolas laptop and downloaded heinous pictures and videos into his computer, his employer discovered it through the internet bill, and he was fired and charged with possession of child pornography, which carries up to five years in prison. He endured death threats, his car tires were cut and he was shunned by friends. But he and his wife fought the case, spending $250,000 on legal fees.They liquidated their savings, took a encourage mortgage and sold their car. Eventually, charges were dropped after prosecutors confirmed the defense findings. It ruined my life, my wifes life and my familys life , says Fiola. These sophisticated techniques emanates from hidden internet levels, where 50,000 to 100,000 online organized pedophiles, one-third American, gather together, as asserted by Jenkins in his book Beyond security deposit Child Pornography Online. With the advent of web-cams and digital photography and video, even from cell phones, home-made child porn is now easy to produce.Peer-to-peer networking, wherein internet users can share files with each other instead of downloading it, along with the use of entropy encryption, file division and passwords, also makes any illegal porn difficult to detect, as inform by the Internet Watch Foundation. Truly, rightfulness enforcement is weak in battling child porn. As of 2008, the International Centre for abstracted Exploited Children (ICMEC) reports that 93 out of 187 countries do not have child-porn-specific laws. And out of the 94 that do have anti-child-porn laws, 36 do not criminalize the possession of child pornography.And according to Interpol statistics, only 1% of child-porn abuse victims are located each year by law enforcers, as reported by Emily Friedman in ABC News. Furthermore, violators found with images of post-pubescent minors, even if it is illegal, are often not prosecuted (Wells, et al 277). Currently, china has the most effective method in the war against child pornography. Right now, the US uses highly inefficient methods. To mitigate its image as the porn search engine of the world, Google develops software to fight child porn.In 2008, Google adapted software for its search engine to track child porn that is available through its search engine, as reported by Maggie Shiels of BBC News. The FBI also posts hyperlinks on the World Wide Web that advertise child porn. Then they fall apart the homes of internet users who click on the links, as Declan McCullagh writes in CNet. Moreover, the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOPP), effected in 2006, attempts to target the assets or finances of organized child-porn rings, as Jamie Doward from the Guardian reports.But China patently blocks all porn and American social-media sites from the Internet. China is known very well for its internet censorship and acetous penalties for drug trafficking. Drug use in the country is one of the lowest in the world. As Reuters reports in December 2009, The Chinese government has run a highly publicized campaign against what officials said were illegalise smutty and lewd pictures overwhelming the countrys Internet and threatening the emotional health of children.They also add that China has banned a number of popular websites and Internet services, including Googles Youtube, Twitter, Flickr and Facebook, as well as Chinese heart sharing sites. Jennifer Guevin of CNET also writes, Google acknowledged last year that the Chinese government asked it to disable a search feature with the goal of censoring pornography. In response to CNETs report, Myles Taylor, a read er, commented, I wish conjoin take some pages from their book and start cracking down on child pornographers, pedophiles and such. In conclusion, law enforcement on child pornography is too weak and tougher regulations need to be implemented to combat this crisis. It would be very effective and simple if the US government were willing to simply block all porno and social-media-sharing sites from the Web, but the US First Amendment would prohibit that. However, unless US lawmakers do something drastic, such as revising the US Constitution, shoppers will continue to see the photographs of missing children on milk cartons, reminding them that their child could be the next victim of thousands of pedophiles simply waiting for the next opportunity.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Theory of Writing Essay Example for Free

Theory of theme EssayWriting varies from a text message to a novel. Writers often nurse a exhausting task in creating a function of work that truly identifies the meaning of veracious piece of music. Every good writer usu ally st subterfuges with the basics such(prenominal)(prenominal) as music musical genre, audience, rhetorical situation, and reflection of the piece. Through extinct this semester, we ingest asleep(p) through all of these key terms in great detail with each new concession that has interpose our way. In doing this, not only as students entirely also as writers, we have come to create our own conjecture of pen. Every writer has a divers(prenominal) hypothesis of opus though most are very similar.Now, at this point in the semester subsequently doing countless journals, in-class exercises, and final subsidizations, I think I have figured out my own theory of writing. Theory of writing to me after all of these assignments is still a grey area but I dissolve pick out main points of it. Theory of writing defined by me involves leash main points. The first thing is how a writer does his or her best work. For instance, I exchangeable to do my writing at night when in that respect is peace and quiet, almost to where I can hear aloud my own thoughts. Secondly, the theory includes what the writer does in planning. My planning includes no planning.I sit at my computer and just start typing all my thoughts on the screen until I do not feel homogeneous typing any much. After that is through with(p) I usually cut the fat and revise all of my work. Lastly, I believe that the theory of writing process involves having one main goal in mind supported by littler sub-goals. bid for example when doing my research essay on concussions in the NFL. I had the main topic of explaining concussions in the NFL with smaller ingredients processing me explain like the hits on a defenseless player rule and countless different ingredients to hel p me create my ultimate burrito.Also in my theory of writing, I have learned to live with the four key terms (audience, genre, rhetorical situation, and reflection) as authorised concepts to keep in mind objet dart writing all of the major assignments. Each term has a different meaning to me and I have learned much and more throughout this semester after each assignment. The very first assignment introduced me to these terms, where I still did not know exactly what they meant but I had a general idea.Look moreprocess analysis essay I learned that genre affects what is being ritten because it sets the stage for what should be through with(p) and what readers expect by picking up the writing. Writers may go into writing a piece of art by combining a few genres but always have one genre that go out shadow over the others. For example Martin Luther King jr. s piece, A Letter from Birmingham Jail, has a specialized genre, which is even stated in the title as a letter. King Jr. s piece can also be looked at as a persuasive essay because he is assay to convince his point of equality to the clergymen of Birmingham.When speaking of genre, I also have to incorporate audience because these 2 terms come exceed in hand. A writers audience is the readers expectations of what they are handout to be reading. Each genre usually has a specific audience. In the King Jr. speech, his sign audience was for the clergymen of Birmingham. Just like genre, there can be multiple audiences for one piece. King Jr. was also talking to the people who supported his equality point by saying we have waited overly long for a change and need to act now.Rhetorical situation on the other hand was probably and still is the hardest key term for me to understand. I learned that Rhetorical situation is the circumstance in which you communicate. This involves the writers personalised factors, the purpose of the writing, the genre, the audience, the topic, and the context for which you ar e writing. A writers personal factors include his or her background such as beliefs (religious or political), where they were raised, how they were raised, life experiences, etc. The purpose of writing is why as a writer you even started to write a authentic piece.For instance the tenableness why I am writing this assignment along with the other three assignments is because I would like to receive a grade for my work. While doing this, I am also learning how to write fracture as a young adult going into the mature world where writing is key luck in everyday life. Lastly, reflection is usually conceived as an after thought. Reflection is known to be more personal to the writer. This is good for a writer to link personal experiences into the writing. Not only is the author reflecting but also the audience too by creating a mental image in their charge.Everyone leave not have the same reflection because each individual thinks differently about various topics. For instance in the magazine bind Is Google Making us Stoopid? by Nicholas Carr. Carr explains that Google is something you are researching rather than learning. In the article, Carr explains his reasoning like When the Net absorbs a medium, that medium is recreated in the Nets image. It injects the mediums content with hyperlinks, blinking(a) ads, and other digital gewgaws, and it surrounds the content with the content of all the other media it has absorbed.A new e-mail message, for instance, may announce its arrival as were glancing over the latest headlines at a newspapers site. The result is to scatter our attention and diffuse our concentration. This quote makes me as a reader imagine somebody clicking off the screen to another window where the email site is. It also makes me reflect on when I may have done this sort of action. I actually just minimized this paper because I just heard a Facebook chat message come in. Some people may not get distracted at all while reading. But this example sho ws how reflection comes about.Readers may not know this while reading, but most relate personal experiences while reading a certain piece. After learning these key terms in the first assignment, I tried applying this part of my theory to the rest of the assignments throughout the semester. During my research essay, I found myself thinking about my broad topic, concussions in the NFL. The NFL has such a big fan base that I did not know how to satisfy all of them. So my research essay was mainly for adults who do not know the science part of concussions and also doctors who do not know what football game is trying to do about concussions.After finding out my genre and audience, I was able to use rhetorical situation and reflection in my paper as nearly by putting some of my own experiences with football into the paper. Overall, the research assignment though did not help me think about my theory of writing too much because I just looked at the assignment as another paper. On the oth er hand, the genre composition assignment opened my eyes big open to my own theory of writing. The genre project was very different but help me consume how important genre and audience coherency really is.Like I established earlier, football has such a large audience that it is hard to incorporate all in one genre. So with three genres at hand, I was able to get almost every part of that audience. I broke the football audience into three groups children, young adults, and adults. For each part of the audience, I had to think of a distinct genre to fit that audience. I ended up creating a video script for children, a magazine article for young adults, and a brochure for adults.Thinking of the different genres for the different audiences was not hard, but actually creating the different genres was difficult. It was difficult because as the writer I needed to think about the particular audience I was writing for. For instance when composing the script for the informational commercial , I needed to think about the children and what they would see when watch this since they were my target audience. Therefore, I need to write the script so a child can comprehend in and understand the message I am trying to get across about head injuries in football.I had to do this with all my audiences. That is why I think audience is the most important part of my writing theory. Coming into this class, rhetorical situation may have been the strongest part of my writing theory because I thought no matter what, you should always put some part of yourself in the writing. When doing the genre composition project, I felt like I did not put any of my own experiences into the writing so my previous theory had been compromised Since I have come up with my own theory, I can now apply it to other writing assignments in school and also the real world.Writing is an inwrought part to the working world, and if one does not know how to write properly, they exit not go far. I am going to be training to be a firefighter in the summer and bordering year while going to school. I want to ultimately work as a firefighter, which legion(predicate) would think does not involve a lot of writing. It actually does. Whenever the fire department is called out to a scene, a firefighter has to take a report of the scene and who was involved. If done improperly, the firefighter may be fired.Also when a firefighter moves up in rank to the lieutenant and captain positions, paperwork is their life. That is why I am in college now to learn essential skills that can be applied to firefighting and to also have a backup plan if firefighting does not work out. My theory of writing has grown throughout this semester and it will continue growing all my life until I die. It does not stop with this class, though this class has taught me a lot about certain key terms and has opened my eyes to new theories. I will add on to my theory of writing as I grow as a writer.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

The Handsomest Drowned Man Essay Example for Free

The Handsomest Drowned Man EssayThat was how they came to hold the most splendid funeral they could ever conceive of for an put away drowned man. ThesisThe author uses magical realism such as everyone worshiping a oddishr this helps the reader guess worldly concern because sometimes we treat the dead improve than we do the living. The wad of the town pampered him, treated him comparable a god and familiarized in that location lives around him even though he was dead. ConclusionThe people of the town pampered the strange good looking dead man, treated him like a god and adjusted there lives around him even though he was dead. They treated the mysterious drowned man like royalty even though he was a stranger. Magical Realism They secretly compared him to their own men, thinking that for all(a) their lives theirs were incapable of doing what he could do in one night, and they ended up dismissing them deep in their black Maria as the weakest, meanest and most useless crea tures on earth.The reader gains a better understanding about reality because it shows that sometime we base too much off looks The magical realism reveals the authors argument by covering more bluntly how we think better of the living than of the dead Later, when they covered his face with a handkerchief so that the light would not bother him, he looked so forever dead, so defenseless, so much like their men that the first furrows of tears opened in their hearts.This quote helps readers gain a better understanding of reality because they started thinking badly of the ones who were living. The author supports his argument because it shows how much the people care for this strange myth like man. It gains a better perspective of reality because they have treated him better than there own family and sometimes we dont appreciate our family The author argued in this quote because they held the best funeral they have ever held for a dead man they had only just come across

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Instance of Innovation Essay Example for Free

typesetters case of Innovation EssayThe throngs of Apple fans who crowded into the Moscone convention centre in San Francisco to hear Steve Jobs give his yearly MacWorld keynote address went into the room with high expectations. Judging by their response their expectations were more than met. The unveiling of the iPhone, Apples long-awaited debut into the mobile handset market, was greeted by rapturous applause, gasps of disbelief, and occasional whoops of joy from the Apple faithful.Six long time later on Apple transformed the market for digital music players with the introduction of the iPod, the company had attempted a double over performance in the market for mobile handsets with the iPhone a slim, sleek handset that relies on an innovative touch- essay user interface. This thing is amazing, says Van Baker, an analyst at Gartner, who had a chance to try the iPhone himself during an analyst briefing by Apple. Its the biggest home run for them Ive seen yet. Apple is fa r from the first company to try to crack the so- called smartphone market.Microsoft, Apples arch-rival, has been talking well-nigh such devices for years, but its mobile windows effort has slumped in part because mobile carriers were wary of Microsoft and kept out. honorable 6m smart phones were sold in the US last year, compargond with more than 1bn mobile handsets sold worldwide. Two trillion of them operated on Windows software, with the rest of the market split between Research In Motion, makers of the Blackberry Palm, maker of the Treo handset and a handful of others. Shares of RIM fell 7. 9 per cent yesterday while Palm stock-taking fell 5. 7 per cent.Charles Golvin, analyst at Forrester, cautions that, even with Apples impressive device, the market for phones that integrate voice calls, e-mail, sack up browsing and music pull up stakes remain a small part of the overall handset market. matai Kazakoff, senior associate at Compete, an industry analyst group, says his rese arch shows that its unlikely that any phone, no discipline how good, is going to get people to pay a high price and up to Dollars 200 in early termination fees on their current contract. Wireless shoppers are hooked on free phones as carriers have subsidized better and better devices over the years. Apple is betting that the iPhones unique user interface the result of years of research will reinvent the entire smartphone category, that as the macintosh redefined computers and just as the iPod redefined what customers came to expect from their digital music players.Apple is going to reinvent the phone, was Mr Jobs bold pronouncement at MacWorld. The early signs are encouraging. Ralph Simon, MEF Americas Chairman Emeritus of the Mobile Entertainment Forum, says that the iPhone represents a quantum leap in diversity for the entertainment industry. You cant overlook the strides already made by competitors like Nokia and Motorola, but the seamless jointure of the iPods kudos to th e mobile phone is a key step evolution of the mobile to becoming an well-rounded entertainment device, says Mr Simon. With the least expensive iPhone models priced at Dollars 499, price remains a concern. How many people will be out there willing to pay that kind of premium? Mr Golvin asks.However, he says there are some encouraging signs in Motorolas recent experience with the Razr, its ultra-thin premium mobile phone. The Razr is now several years old they were able to keep their premium prices for quite a while, Mr Golvin says. Mr Jobs was keen to signal Apples intention to travel a leading player in consumer electronics yesterday. At the close of his MacWorld speech, he announced the company had intractable to drop the word computer from its name now that its brand has spread well beyond the Macintosh to include other devices. Even the most jaded observers would be hard pressed to deny that, with the iPhone, the newly christened Apple is off to a great start.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Born Into Brothels Essay Example for Free

born(p) Into Brothels EssayBorn into Brothels is an efficacious movie that documents tone at the extremes. Henslin (2010) defines social stratificiation as the division of large numbers of citizenry into layers concord to their relative property, power, prestige applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society or opposite group. With this story, Born into Brothels d bes our insight of human resilience, while counsel on the lowest social class system, which is based in the main on possession of money or material possessions (Henslin, 2010) in social stratification. This documentarys rump drop is Caluctta, India, which is home to one of the oldest populations and religious doctrines in the world.Though India is a country with remarkable history, it pay offs from environmental ruin, considerable overpopulation, religious strife and excessive poverty. This is a story near the power of human visual sense and determination. It follows the amazing lives of eig ht children living in one of Calcuttas most famous bolshie mail districts. Zana Briski, Co-Director, teaches photography to these children and tries to gain better educational opportunities for them, while capturing images of their every day lives. Born into Brothels tugs at your heartstrings, precisely also offers profound and soul stirring questions as to the extent that asidesiders can become involved in the lives of others for the only liveliness they know.Eight children, born into a culture of poverty, an assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor progress to them fundamentally different from other people that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty crosswise generations by passing these characteristics to their children (Henslin, 2010), their caste, peoples statuses are determined by birth and are long (Henslin, 2010), is there destiny, and they believe that is all they have in life. These children are born to women that have few options other than walking the course which is prostitution, or cleaning houses and most of the men suffer from drug abuse or alcoholism.HIV/AIDS, murder and crime are prevalent and living conditions are deplorable. In the red poor district, which is its proclaim city inside of a city non only do the residents suffer in this harsh reality, every aspect of existnce is contaminated by its grave condition. In essence it is their own form of slavery, form of social stratification in which some people own other people (Henslin, 2010). The main characters are Gour, who is best friends with Puja. Gour worries that Puja allow for follow in the footsteps of her family. Pujas family history is from a line of prostitution.They are regal in the district, as they eat well and dress well. Puja always shares what she has. Manik and Shanti are chum salmon and sister and both eager to learn. Avijit, probably one of the most talented with his photography also loves to b ear himself in his drawings and paintings. Kochi, is a very strong little girl that suffers a lot of emotional and communicative abuse. She works doing chores from 4 a.m. to about 11 p.m. trying to make money for her family and takes her life for what it is.Suchitra is the oldest of the group. Gour is fearful that she will be sent to work the line. Suchitras mom died and her aunt wants to send her to Bombay to become a prostitute. Suchitra does not see a solution and is fearful to leave her home for this reason. Lastly, there is Tapasi. This little girl has resigned herself to the ideology, beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements (Henslin, 2010) that the red light district has engrained into its residents. Tapasi says one has to accept that life is full of sadness and pain (Briski, 2004) her hopelessness as a matter of fact attitude is astounding. conjectural APPLICATIONThe theoretical application of this film strongly parallels the conflict syst em. The conflict theory is a theory by which views society as made up of many different groups that are competing for scarce resources, focusing on inequality (Henslin, 2010). While the movie explores fundamental ideologies regarding the status of women in that society, as most women are considered second-class citizens, most marriages are arranged by families and women have almost no way of protesting. Women are routinely bought and sold as early as age eight and many are agonistic to come sex workers. The sex workers are socially shunned and because of this, the children are often discriminated against. Because of this reason, getting these children into boarding schools turn up to be a great feat.CONCLUSIONBorn into Brothels opened the windows of 8 childrens lives and their families for a short time. Their photography was and still is being sold to help pay for boarding school for the children born into the red light district. The 8 children featured were afforded opportunities that they would never have otherwise been given. We dont need to work to Calcutta, India to put ourselves into other peoples shoes, we can be aware of what is happening somewhat us right here in our own city. Somewhere out there, there is a stranger, an animal, or even a friend or family member that may need your compassion and understanding. Stretch out your hand dont be afraid to open yourself up to the opportunity of putting a smile on someone elses face and making a difference in the life of another.REFERENCEBriski, Z. (Director). (2004). Born into Brothels Motion Picture. Henslin, J. (2010). Sociology A Down to Earth Approach. New York Prentice Hall.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

A post-secondary institution Essay Example for Free

A post-secondary institution EssayIf I was non able to lick it in any of my post-secondary institution this year, It will disappointment for me. Every endeavor that a man wishes in life comes at the right time and with a great purpose. Failing to make it to any of my desired field will pave way for me to pursue other fields non academically. Doing things that I have knowledge or have never thought about but have evoke in. I might discover something in the field outside of post-secondary institution that will help me gain as an individual. I believe that my disappointment will only be short-lived, because I will parapraxis my attention to doing more relevant things like companionship services. In order to learn, continuously there is a need for socialization and active participation in doing services. This will benefit not only the community but the individuals growth as well.Making a difference out of this fast changing reality is by simply being me. Dedicating myself to c ommunity service without anything in return is my way of making a difference. Doing activities through service in the community allows me to grow as an individual and help other battalion as well.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

What was important to women in the past Essay Example for Free

What was alpha to women in the past EssayIn the early 20s, things corresponding acquire married at an early age while you were distillery at your prime, building a family, buying a house with a white picket fence were important. Then in the 30s, getting married and having a family was still the most important thing, barely also perhaps becoming a socialite and presenting a good imaging. *NOTE It may be important to note that women were always expected to beat lag up appearances or be perfect and project the right image. At this lead, having a career was comparatively not important In the 60s is when women started getting out there and looking for jobs.Although having a family/husband was still important, women started getting jobs. However, the jobs they were getting were not standardized the mens they mostly had jobs like secretaries, teachers, nurses (jobs that have become stereotypical. ) As time progressed, the importance of having a career and being independent g rew among women. We definitely saw this in the early 80s with women starting signal to break into the business world. The importance of this to women was shown in movies and music of the 80s. Even in fashion, we started assimilateing women dressing like men I. e.blazers, pants instead of skirts, ties careers, independence, and equality became even more important. During the 90s and up until today, women still find family important, but they recognize that personal stability, independence, bringing up and your career are 1. * NOTE We see this belief in magazines like Cosmopolitan magazine as images as successful working women are portrayed. -women dont care as frequently of the image they should portray as much as in the past even though the insistence to do so is still there. -now women look for things like right equality.-in the future, I think career provide be even more important, in addition to making money. -this ambition can, in turn, only be good for the economy bec ause women will get into the usually male dominated fields that usually pay the most women will be able to generate more money for companies. Past/ Present/ coming(prenominal) opportunities women had/will have (edu. /jobs/to sack up money. ) In the past, definitely, women were not expected or encouraged to continue their education after high school therefore, their opportunities were limited. Nonetheless, the chance to go to school was still available as off the beaten track(predicate) back as the 20s.Career-wise, even if a women did go to university, for example, she was expected to take the jobs for women, like a teacher. thither were hardly any female doctors, scientists, lawyers In that sense, those opportunities were limited. Obviously more educational and career opportunities have go up over the decades. Now there are chances for everyone. BUT, some stereotypes still exist of, women not belonging in the tech world. That may limit possibilities of advancement. In the futu re though will change because weve already stared to see it happen slowly but surely.Progress Development Report When we first started our task list of the things we treasured to talk about in our I. S. U. we refractory to include the following points womens roles at crime syndicate, their roles in society, what was important to them, how did they make money, their knowledge of the work force, education/opportunities, knowledge of innovations, and obstacles to overcome. However, as we thought about how we were going to organize this so that it would flow coherently and be interesting to read, we decided to focus on one task point and pull new(prenominal) ideas from our other points that would correlate.We decided to select the question, What was important to women then, what is important to them now, and what will be important to them in the future? By doing this, we can accurately create a comparison of how their roles at home and in society have changed by revealing womens c hanging priorities. Also through personal accounts, statistics, diachronic findings from books and the internet, we will set the stage, or describe what was going on at the time to answer the other questions like the obstacles women had to overcome ( ie.Unequal pay ), or education and opportunities (ie. The growth of their opportunities or lack their of. )Our group decided to answer the question of what women find important to not only present the project in a more interesting way and not just report the information, but to make it more personal. So far, we have had success in our change in organization for we are finding it much easier to order the information and that is, in turn, making our assignment all the better.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Innocence and Experience Essay Example for Free

Innocence and Experience EssayAt integrity point in our lives we were alone children, turn arounding things about biography, experiencing new things, and makeing animatenesss lessons. We were all naive and knew vigour about the world around us, we were all innocent to life and what it had to bring. It was not until we grew former(a) that we began to lose our naturalness with either new induce. Growing older means taking responsibility, accepting and over access lifes hardships and understanding oneself. So as we reach adulthood we begin to question when the conversion from white to experience occurs and what causes and marks this coming of age. In the novel They Poured Fire on Us From The Sky, the characters and plot stretch the opposition of honour and experience and see us how they continuously overlap and occur by dint of with(predicate)out the spirit of an individual. By analyzing the boys experiences of macrocosm refugees, their encounters with state of w ar, and their relationship and appreciation for the Dinkaland, we become aw ar of the connector betwixt innocence and experience and how it is portrayed and represented in the novel.Starvation, isolationism, and confusion, atomic number 18 words we unknowingly associate with refugees. no(prenominal) of us tolerate fully understand and begin to relate to the popular opinions and emotions of refugees. Most of what we know has been through books or media where the hardship of refugee life is depicted as horrifying, desperate, and unresponsive. In They Poured Fire on Us From the Sky, one of the of import characters, Alepho depicts life as a refugee while giving us instances of experience where we are shown his loss of innocence. by dint of the text Alepho gives us a first hand account of his experience with being a refugee and how he has matured, transitioned into adulthood, and through all of this has ultimately been stripped of his innocence. The Soldiers who came to camp alw ays said, You know, I think there go out be peace. But although people always hoped and prayed for peace, peace never came and we lost hope (Deng 271). Not unaccompanied does this show how through their experiences they realize peace will never come notwithstanding also how they sire given up on hoping for a better future.Their innocence has been lost through every thought of hope that has never been achieved. At only a youth age Alepho and the other boys take aside already experienced so lots devastation, corruption and loneliness, leaving only their childhood memories as a connection to their innocence. Not only did being a refugee leave mental scars save it also had a endure impact on their physical well-being. Being a refugee is something that many people cannot understand. Refugee life was like being devoured by wild animals. We lived five of us in one house.The little ration we received we composed together and cooked as a meal once a day. Though we had an appetite there wasnt enough to eat as teenage growing boys with tender bones and body. Nutritional diseases were rampant in the camp. Children died from marasmas, kwashiorkor, anemia, and beriberi. Rickets was the worst with the young boys al more or less every boy was bow-legged. It was hard for boys to go to school with put down stomachs. An empty stomach cannot carry a healthy mind (Deng 274). This depicts a more vivid depiction of what refugee life was like and how impacting it was to their health.They became famished, and their health was slowly deteriorating with every meal that they skipped, and every disease acquired. As a result, we see how at such a young age the boys life was corrupted and how they had to experience things that most people dont experience in a lifetime. Starvation, devastation, and loneliness, were the only things we as children saw in movies or games, we could never imagine ever experiencing it first hand. The boys were stripped of their innocence as children, grown to be beaten(prenominal) with an empty stomach, separated from their family, and above all had no place to truly call home. with each experience they faced they lost all ties to their innocence and were forced to mature in a world of corruption, and isolationism. We ware all heard the word war, whether through textbooks in school, or stories passed down from our grandparents. We have all been some what introduced to the concept of war, World War I and II, Vietnam, The Civil War, and the current Middle eastern War, are just some of the wars we have been taught about. However, none of us have experienced the horrific emotions, and psychological pain that comes along with being involved in war.We all know adults or friends who have served for our country, but what we are not familiar with are children who have been forced into war by means of cruelty. In the novel, the young boys are interpreted from their homes and forced into war, and the life of a refugee. But I didnt und erstand this complicated war, how it mortally devoured the land and left it so full of skeletons. The adults talked of the war all the time. They discussed slavery, apartheid, racism, segregation, and tribalism. They called it a phantasmal war. A jihad. I heard all the words but I didnt understand them.I think kids feel differently about things than adults do. From what I could see men or woman, children or adults, young or aged, rich or poor, war was making everyone equal (Deng 123). This shows how the boys are naive and innocent to the war, and the think and purpose of it, but this innocence is soon lost when the boys experience death of friends and family, life of a refugee, and the horrors of war. The boys are innocent in the fact that they do not understand the concept or reason for war but their experience throughout it show they have fully made the transition from innocence to experience or childhood to adulthood.Throughout the book we see how the boys show experience over innocence but when it comes to understanding war, and what causes it, the boys immaturity comes through. We said that a lot. As children, seven or eight years old, we knew nothing about the world, just that we were not in our mamas house no more (Deng 123). The boys are so innocent to the world around them and whats going on, that all they do know is that things have changed and they are not home anymore. At one point in the novel the boys experienced innocence.They were so naive to not only the world, but also to the concept of war. However, as we become more familiar with the boys and follow them on their endeavors as refugees we can see how through their experiences their innocence was lost. Family and friends, are something most of us take for granted, the thought of loosing them is indescribable. Family and friends are to most of us, the most structured and important relationships in our lives. Family is what helps you overcome difficulties, and friends are there to share laugh s and build memories with.In some cases people have lost family members due to somber illness or other circumstances but very few to almost none in our society have been taken away from their families and community to be refugees of war. Alepho, Benjamin and Benson have all been taken away from their family and Dinkaland, and forced to be refugees of war. Since my wandering began, there hasnt been a day or iniquity that I do not think back to my family, our people and lovely Dinkaland (Deng 3). The boys have been taken away from their home and familiar way of life, to become refugees of the war.The boys loss of innocence is shown through every thought of family and home. They are so young and have been taken out of their familiar way of life to live a life of corruption and unfamiliarity. Through this we see how experience has a drastic put in on ones innocence, and we see through every experience the boys lose a wind of innocence. When I sometimes have nightmares about all the things that happened when our peaceful village life turned to chaos, that expression of not being able to move during my initiation still overcomes me (Deng 10).This shows Alephos response to the war and when it lastly arrived to their time. The memories of that day still haunt him, and overpower him with fear. One can say that this is the first time the boys innocence is lost and the last time we see his total state of innocence. This quote helps depict Alephos attitude and how much of a drastic affect it has on him. From their experiences, the boys lose their naivety and begin their world of maturity and responsibilities where they learn from experience, and ultimately make the transition from innocence to experience.In our society today events and cultural celebrations mark the coming of age such as birthdays, Sweet Six-teens, Graduation, and the ability to vote. Today age eighteen marks the set-back of adulthood where childhood becomes a thing of the past and society expects y ou to begin to take responsibility and show maturity in not only the choices you make, but also the actions you engage in. However as we can see in the novel They Poured Fire on Us From the Sky, Alepho, Benjamin, and Benson have all shown maturity through their experiences and consequently a loss of innocence.Through reading their stories and analyzing the text we can see how the boys experience in war, being a refugee, and their appreciation for the Dinkaland has forced them into the transition from innocence to experience, at such a young age. Ultimately we are shown that innocence and experience are directly related, with experience we lose innocence and with our innocence we are more vulnerable to experiences that will shape our lives. Both of these entities continuously overlap and often reoccur through out the life of an individual.

The concept of technical and allocative efficiency

The concept of technological and allocative mightTechnical Efficiency- Basic ConceptThe bourne Technical Efficiency was first aimd by M. J. Farrell in 1957 in his seminal paper and differentiated and disaggregated scotch might into cardinal comp matchlessnts i.e. practiced efficiency and allocative efficiency. Coelli et al. (1999) define technical efficiency as the uttermost achiev competent issue from a given label of inputs and live technology (Coelli, Rao, Battese, 1999). It has been overly defined as the ratio of actual output signal and dominance output of a maturate unit i.e.In this sense TE refers to the manner in which the inputs or return resources atomic act 18 used. By this definition it is more cobblers lastly associated with the techniques of framing or understanding of technology and plentys with the behavior of how to build up an optimal level of deed regard little of input-output p sieve ratio. Hence, technical efficiency is likewise equival ent to Agronomic Efficiency.The concept of technical and allocative efficiency coffin nail be pardoned by the help of Figure 2.1 illustrated by Kalirajan and Shand (1999).Theoretically, we assume that all units of deed ( potent or land) operate at potential barrier drudgery component part i.e. the particulars along the curve FF. Any level of inefficiency with respect to this ware function will be strictly allocative. The reason whitethorn be that the kick upstairsr has no in take place to buy inputs or is non willing to leave out more for the marginal amount of inputs. Now suppose if the firm operates at point B by using I1 inputs and getting Y1 output. At this point the firm is both technically and allocatively in effect(p) with a maximum make of 1. When the firm operates at Point-A with I2 level of inputs producing Y2 output points, earning 2 amount of profit. At this point the firm is technically efficient as it is operating(a) at FF solely when it is inefficient a llocatively. It can improve its profit by 2/1 amount. But on real grounds, the units of production operate at less than the level of its potential landmark. The reasons atomic flake 18 different technical, socio-economic, bio-physical, organizational and other unkn profess factors (Ahmed et al., 2002 Ajibefun, 2008 Ozkan et al. (2009)). Thus the firm operates at its actual production function AA below the potential frontier FF. Let us suppose it operates at point C with I2 amount of inputs and producing Y3 yield and earning 3 profits. At this point the firm is neither technically nor allocatively efficient. It could maximize its profit to 4 levels by operating at point D utilizing I3 inputs and producing Y4 outputs.But on real grounds, the units of production operate at less than the level of its potential frontier. The reasons are different technical, socio-economic, bio-physical, organizational and other unknown factors ( Ahmed et al., 2002 Ajibefun, 2008 Ozkan et al. 2009). T hus the firm operates at its actual production function AA below the potential frontier FF. Let us suppose it operates at point C with I2 amount of inputs and producing Y3 yield and earning 3 profits. At this point the firm is neither technically nor allocatively efficient. It could maximize its profit to 4 levels by operating at point D utilizing I3 inputs and producing Y4 outputs.Thus it is quite clear from Figure 2.1 that economic inefficiency is composed of two components of technical and allocative inefficiency. The total loss of the firm in profit terms operating at point C is 1-3. Within this loss, 3-2 and 1-2 are the technical and allocative inefficiency losses respectively.The efficiency scenarios in these exercises explain three reasons of farmers attributes as discussed by Ellis (1988)Farmers desire to maximize profit with less input levels given by yield breakout (Y0 Y3). Such behavior is referred as profit maximization behavior.Second reason may be the lack of correc t parcelling of inputs given by (Y3 Y2), andFarmers failure of operating in the most efficient production function (Y3 Y3). This gap represents technical inefficiency level, andFarmers behavior to reduce his jeopardy of infection instead of maximizing profit....Technical Efficiency- History / EvolutionFarrell (1957) is known as the pioneer of efficiency publications when the frontier production model developed by him, in one of his seminal papers, decomposed economic efficiency into two components i.e. technical and allocative efficiency. He defined TE as the ability of a firm to produce maximum output given a set of inputs under existing technology. Stated differently, technical inefficiency is the failure of attaining the maximum fashionable level of production given existing resources and technology (Bravo-Ureta Pinheiro, 1993). The adoption of new technologies after green whirling for enhancing farm output has acknowledged special attention as a means to accelerate ki tchen-gardening development after Schultzs hypothesis that conventional agribusiness was fully efficient (Schultz, 1964). The growth carry outance is non only determined by such(prenominal) technological innovations but also by the efficient direction and utilization of such technologies. The importance of efficiency measures as a means of nurturing productivity a tidy amount of literature is put in focusing on agriculture (Bravo-Ureta Pinheiro, 1993).The efficiency analysis of units of agriculture inputs (land, bear on, plant food etc.) has always been the focus of a number of studies since early 1960s. Most of the studies vex supported Schultzs efficient but poor hypothesis. Theodore Shultz stated this hypothesis in 1964 thatThe traditional agriculture is fully efficient in the allocation of inputs under an existing technology. The combination of crops being grown, the depth and number of cultivation, time of planting, fertilizing, body of watering and harvesting, the c ombination of tools, compose animals and equipment are all made with a fine regard for marginal monetary values.(Schultz, 1964)Sahota (1968) based on his and more an(prenominal) others come supported Schultzs hypothesis in their empirical works. Based on his issue in Indian agriculture, Sahota (1968) concludes that the bulk of the evidences appear to support the hypothesis that the resources unattached to conventional Indian farmers have been, by and large, efficiently allocated (Sahota, 1968).A large number of frontier models were developed based on Farrells work which was than classified into parametric and non-parametric types. Aigner Chu (1968) were the initiators of deterministic parametric speak to. They estimated a deterministic production frontier of a Cobb-Douglas type through analogue and quadratic programming techniques. Timmer (1971) further developed this procedure by introducing a probabilistic production frontier model. He estimated a series of production fro ntiers by dropping extreme observations at each format until the rate of change of parameter estimates stabilizes. These estimators had undefined statistical properties. other class of frontier models was proposed by Afriat in 1972 known as statistical production frontiers. jibe to Afriats (1972) model, technical efficiency is a one-sided fluster term with some explicit assumptions and frontier is estimated by rule of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). On the other hand if the folies are based on no a-priori assumptions, then corrected least squares (COLS) method is used to estimate the production frontier by just shifting the frontier upwards c everyplace song all negative disturbance terms.In 1977, Aigner et al. (Aigner, Lovell, Schmidt, 1977), and Meeusen and Broeck (1977) independently developed stochastic frontier production model in which the error term was decomposed into two components. A one-sided overbearing component reflecting inefficiency and a two-sided erro r component covering measurement errors and the random effects, which are not in control of the producer. chthonic this model the frontier could be could be estimated either by COLS or MLE. But in 1980, Greene found that the MLE are more efficient than COLS as the former method makes use of special statistical distributions for the disturbance terms e.g. exponential, half-normal or gamma distribution (Greene, 1980).Another mathematical programming method was developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) in 1978 which was a generalized form of Farrells (1957) method in terms of multi-input and multi-output vectors. Their method is rise known as Data Envelopment Analysis or DEA. But their approach of measuring efficiency confounds the true technical efficiency score with uncontrollable noise (Charnes, Cooper, Rhodes, 1978). Further developments in DEA were incorporated by Varian in 1985. He brought improvements in DEA by treating the deviations as having stochastic characteristics and split them into two components of technical efficiency and random noise (Varian, 1985).The Free Disposal Hull (FDH) model, introduced by Deprins et al. (1984), was originally designed as an set up to DEA models. In FDH approach only strong (free) disposability of inputs and outputs is assumed by relaxing the convexity assumptions of DEA models. FDH models were initially set as DEA models under variable returns to scale (VRS). The FDH models are traditionally represented as mixed whole number linear programming (MILP) problems. Further extensions in production frontier estimation are multi-equation models based on production, utility, cost or profit function specifications. Such extensions include the work of Kumbhakar (1987) Battese, Coelli and Colby (1989).In the decade of 1990s, the literature on TE expanded with the growing use of Z-variables in the application of stochastic Frontier access (SFA). Previously, researchers used auxiliary or two-step regression on a set of so cioeconomic, institutional and form _or_ corpse of government variables, so-called Z-variates to observe the effect of such variables on TE scores. A new method proposed by Wang and Schmidt allows a one-step procedure for calculation of TE and inspect effects of such Z-variables (Wang Schmidt, 2002).Kalirajan and Obwona (1994) suggested another approach for modeling production behavior and technical efficiency of any production unit, known as Stochastic Varying Coefficient Frontier Approach or SVFA. Under this method, like DEA, the potential output is estimated by allowing TE to vary by each individual input. Thus it makes comparison between firms performances easier in a archetype of firms. It also facilitates to identify a benchmark of an excellent performing firm in terms of top hat practice in a sample (Kalirajan Shand, 1999).A recent approach, different from other sampling hypothesis models, is Bayesian Approach (BA). The approach treats the uncertainty concerning which sampling method to use by mixing over a number of competing a-priori inefficiency distributions with a-posteriori model probabilities as weights. This approach overcomes the criticism of imposing a-priori distributions on disturbance term as in SFA. But in Bayesian Approach, like SFA, the potential output to estimate TE varies over all inputs taken together. It also differentiates random effects and fixed effects issue for impanel data (Kalirajan Shand, 1999).Developmetns are being made on the methods to make them more, efficient, flexible, easily computable and more constitution oriented. Especially Bayesian and FDH approaches consider more modifications and specifications.Efficiency Studies in Developing Countries Agriculture and Associated FactorsHere we identify some literature on efficiency estimates in agriculture sector of some developing countries with our main(prenominal) focus being on Pakistan. The findings regarding intermediate efficiency scores and their relatio nship between different factors are summarized in the following paragraphs.Shapiro (1983) examined TE of Tanzanian cotton farmers using a Cobb-Douglas production frontier. His findings yielded an average TE of 66 part racewaying rejection of Schultzs (1964) hypothesis.Balbase and Grabowski (1985) invested TE in Nepalese agriculture. His findings yielded 84 percent and 67 percent TE scores for rice and maize farms respectively. His analysis showed that nutrient levels, farmers education and income were significant factors influencing TE.Kalirajan and Shand (1985) examined TE of paddy field farms in Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Their study proved non-formal education as significant positive factor in enhancing efficiency levels of farmers.Ali and Flinn (1989) have used a modified trans-log stochastic profit frontier to investigate profit efficiency of Basmati rice farms in Pakistan. They identify education, credit, late application of fertilizer and water shortage as key factors in profit losses.Ali and Chaudhary (1990) estimated efficiency for 220 farmers in Pakistani Punjab. According to his findings the average technical, allocative and economic efficiency were 84%, 61% and 51% respectively.Hussain (1991) analyse efficiency in Punjab province of Pakistan. His results showed a TE score ranging from 80 percent for rice region and 87 percent for sugarcane region.Bravo-Ureta and Evenson (1994) analyzed efficiency for 101 cassava and 87 cotton farmers from Eastern Paraguay. His findings showed 58%, 70% and 41% technical, allocative and economic efficiency scores respectively for cotton farmers. Whereas the corresponding figure for cassava growers were 59%, 89% and 52% respectively. His results evidenced farmers age, education, farm size, extension contacts and credit availability as significant factors influencing efficiency level of farmers.Another study conducted by Ali, Parikh and Shah (1994) in NWF province of Pakistan by using both behavioral and stochasti c cost frontier functions. Among socioeconomic variables, farmers age, farm size, land atomisation and subsistency were showing significant influence on inefficiency levels.Ahmed et al. (2002) have analyzed TE of wheat growers in three provinces of Pakistan using a stochastic frontier production approach. The results yielded on average 32 percent losses callable to technical inefficiency. The variables of age, education, extension services, farm to commercialise distance, farm size, and credit availability had significant influence on efficiency levels of farmers in the provinces. He also found that wheat farmers in Punjab were technically more efficient (70%) than their counterparts in Sindh (66%) and NWFP (63%). Tenants were technically more efficient than the owners and owner-cum-tenants.Dhungana et al. (2004) have used Data Envelopment Analysis approach to examine efficiency of Nepalese rice Farmers. The results revealed that 76, 87 and 66 percent technical, allocative and ec onomic efficiency levels were wind by farmers. The factors contributing in inefficiency were excessive use of input resources, farmers level of risk attitude, managers age and gender, education and family labour endowment.Hassan and Ahmed (2005) examined TE of wheat growers in a mixed farming system of Punjab province in Pakistan using a C-D production function. The mean TE was recorded about 94 percent. The key influencing factors of efficiency were education, timely cultivation of crops, credit availability, sowing patterns and water availability.Bashir and caravansary (2005) have conducted an efficiency analysis of 200 wheat farms in Northern region of Pakistan. They found high variation in yields of sample farms showing an average allocative efficiency of 72 percent in the study area. Farmers awareness, education level, farm size and level of fertilizer used were significant factors depriving farmers to achieve their optimum level of profits.Lambarraa et al. (2006) examined TE and productivity growth in the Spanish Olive sector. They found that farmers age, farm location kick upstairs government activitys of land and organic nature of farming techniques affect significantly the level of efficiency.Mari and Lohano (2007) have analyzed TE of onion, tomato and chili farms in Sindh province of Pakistan. The mean TE was found to be 83 percent, 74 percent and 59 percent for chili, tomato and onion farms respectively.A detailed study on TE of Russian agriculture has been conducted by Brock et al. (2007). They found interesting results under three organizational farming regime i.e. grump farming, large corporate farming and household plots. The TE rankings were highest for household plots (81%) followed by corporate farms (74%) and peasant farms (70%). The peasant farms were least efficient.Analyzing efficiency of Nigerian food crops, Ajibefun (2008) has applied both SFA and DEA approach. He found only slight variation in average TE computed by both methods, i.e. 68 percent by SFA and 65 percent by DEA. Significant influencing factors were farmers age and education level.Kilic et al. (2009) have investigated TE of hazelnut production in Samson province of Turkey. Their study showed an average efficiency of 73.5 percent. Farmers education level and farm fragmentation were found as significant factor determining TE.A very recent work by Monchuk et al. (2010) on TE in Chinas agriculture reveals that heavy industrialization and large percentage of unpolished labour force in agriculture sector tend to reduce TE. He suggests that air and water defilement have negative effects on agriculture production and growth of non-primary agriculture may lead to efficient use of labour resources.Factors Affecting Technical EfficiencyThere are various socioeconomic, infrastructural, institutional and policy factors that tend to influence technical efficiency of farmers, in that locationby depriving them from achieving a potential output from their avail able resources. Identification and probable solutions of such factors had been the focus of researchers and policy makers through decades. A summary table of the work of different researchers showing TE of different crops and significant factors affecting level of TE is given in Table 2.1Yield GapYield gap is the balance between the yields of the experimental station by researchers and yield from farmers plot. According to Gomez (1977), yield gap appears in two ways (see Figure 2.2)The yield gap between maximum yield of research station and potential farm yield. This gap emerges into the system due to the environmental factors (climate, rainfall, humidity, sunlight etc) and non-transferable technology to farmers fields from the research station.Second type of yield gap is the difference between potential farm yields to that of the actual farm yield gained by the farmer. This difference arises from the different biological and socio-economic factors.This study of these gaps is parti cularly eventful in the context of research and arises some questions that whether the research methodologies, technologies, environment, equipments and capital be utilized at research station are appropriate to farmers field conditions? Whether the recommended technology is complete? Whether this can address or takes into consideration the less favorable socioeconomic, bio-physical and environmental conditions of rain-fed and resource-poor marginalized farmers (Dahal, 1996)? The process of estimating technical efficiency gaps should be taken in a systematic and realistic way. It is necessary to consider the farmers specific farm trials quite an than the trials conducted at the research stations.Role of merchandise in Rural EconomyFarmers consider themselves as impairment takers and think that they have no control over expenditures and are bound to accept whatever the price is offered. They do not know how to capture new markets nor how market ask and buyers preferences are changing and which products are to grow to gain more profit from their produce. Farmers generally have knowledge and skills in agriculture production techniques but marketing needs new skills, techniques and sources of information. Farmers armed with newest business and marketing skills will have discover profit margins (Dixie, 2005).Rural businesses include input suppliers, product buyers, transporters, storage companies, processing companies and sellrs. These intermediaries are often believed to employ farmers and making unfair profits. Although they try to maximize their profit yet it is to accept that without these intermediaries farmers would not be able to link with input and output markets and neither they would be able to sell their produce.Role of Marketing in Consumer welfareAs farmers desire is to receive higher prices, consumers desire to pay lower prices. Farmers want to be paid as much share of consumer price as possible. These two conflicting goals balance when th ere is an efficient and low-cost marketing chain. Consumers preferences are constantly developing particularly in the case of horticulture crops. They need a marketing system that can respond to their changing demands and tastes. The marketing system should supply the volumes, phase and quality products that consumers demand.Fruits Marketing System in Pakistan (Aujla et al)Marketing includes a series of inter-connected activities knotted in the course of products and services from the point of production to the point of consumption at a profit. An efficient marketing system guarantees sustained agricultural growth as it affects both producers income and consumers welfare (Aujla, Abbas, Mahmood, Saadullah, 2007). The marketing of takingss in the Pakistan is supply based. erst a producer brings his produce to the market, the prices are decided by large traders at the spot such that he is bound to accept the prevailing prices. Most of the times the producers have to dispose off t heir commodities at throwaway prices (Hanif, Khan, Nauman, 2004).Several factors influence the efficiency of crop marketing that include high perishability, seasonality, low quality, mismatched prices and location of the products, the physical handling of produce and the institutional arrangements for facilitating these activities. The existing marketing system in Pakistan consists of assembly, wholesale and terminal markets, which are briefly discussed belowAssembly MarketsAssembly markets are fit(p) close to horticulture farm gate, generally situated in small townships or sub-districts, where farmers bring their study(ip) portion of marketable redundance for sale to the shopkeepers, traders and retailers present in these markets. Most of the proceedings in assembly markets involve small quantities of produce. Traders in assembly markets are not approved by any government agency, although in some cases town committees charge an entry fee from traders. Usually, these traders maintain no systematic record of transactions. The price formation is dim-witted and based on direct negotiation between the traders and the farmers. Because the quantities involve small bulks the farmers may not learning ability small price differentials.Wholesale MarketsWholesale markets are essential components of any marketing system, especially for horticulture crops because these markets give farmers effective and profitable marketing outlets for their products. Adequately located, sized and managed wholesale markets serve as a staple fibre instrument for promoting competition and help to improve consumers health and food quality control (FAO, 2001).Wholesale markets in Pakistan are usually located in a district town or a major sub-division town. These markets are the main assembly centers for the fruit and vegetable surplus of surrounding areas. These markets have better transportation, storage, dialogue and working conditions than those in the assembly markets. The exa mple of wholesale market in Balochistan is that of Quetta, where the surplus fruit produce of nearby districts are supplied. Wholesale markets have permanent auction floors and offices built by traders ( outfit agent) who hold an authoritative permit for their activities. Each trader has sufficient space in the market to store produce for a few days or for longer periods at a nominal charge. Traders keep records of their daily transactions and report them to the Market Committee. Market participants in wholesale markets including commission agents, wholesalers, retailers, shopkeepers and weighing men are also registered and licensed by Market Committees. Introduction of these measures have resulted in some improvements in these markets. foreign mission agents in wholesale market, charged 8 to 10 percent commission on the sale revenue (Hussain Abid, 2005). The major players in the wholesale market are commission agents, wholesalers, retailers and shopkeepers.Terminal MarketsTermin al markets are generally situated in large urban centers. Most of the marketable surplus of agricultural commodities is ultimately routed to these markets. The Karachi market is one of the best examples of this kind of market in Pakistan. Foreign trade is another reason for the flow of the marketable surplus to this market. Traders in terminal markets are usually wholesalers who supply agricultural products to firms, industries and exporters. The majority of traders are purchasing agents, who buy from other wholesale markets through their agents or directly when the produce is brought there from other regions. This market is well weaponed with traders who are well established and broadly speaking depending on supplies from growers and other wholesale markets. They have access to all modern facilities for approaching their agents in lower level markets. Many traders have their own trucking companies. Telephone and telegraph services are easily available for them.Fruit Marketing im part in PakistanKhushk and Smith 1996Khushk and Smith (1996) have done a nice and detailed study of fruit marketing channels in Pakistan by concentrating particularly on mango production in Sindh province. According to them, agricultural marketing channels refer to the outlets or routes through which commodities pass to reach final consumers. As produce moves along the marketing chain, its price increases because of opportunity cost incurred by each intermediary (Dixie, 2005). The existing fruit marketing channels in Pakistan by . are presented in Figure.....Figure 2.3 Marketing Channels for Fruits in PakistanThe marketing channels functionaries common in the country areProducerThe fruit growing farmers are dispersed geographically in the country. Majority of producer sell the harvesting rights of their orchards to contractors at the flowering or in hanging fruits stage because they do not want to be involved in marketing complications. Also the farmers do not do not want to take t he risk of price and income variation due to perishability, quality damage, and price seasonality. In addition, Khushk and Smith (1996) found another important reason reported by farmers is the lack of knowledge of marketing. commission agents are biased towards farmers than contractors and do not want to transfer market price information to farmers or provide them other facilities, like unceremonial credits, transportation or information access at the market-place. By this way commission agents control the supply, demand and prices of market (Khushk Smith, 1996 Ali, 2004 Aujla, Abbas, Mahmood, Saadullah, 2007).ContractorThe contractor plays a main role in the marketing of fruits. He has close contacts with commission agents in the wholesale and terminal markets. While contracting an orchard, the contractor estimates its yield and considers the expected be to be incurred for supervision, labour, transportation, and marketing. Khushk and Smith (1996) report that more than 95 perc ent of mango contractors in Sindh province of Pakistan obtained loans from commission agents to pay the initial installments to the mango farmers and to pay an advance for labour and packing material. Once a contractor receives loan from commission agent, he is obliged to supply the produce to that commission agent.Commission AgentCommission agents act as a link between contractors in the field and wholesalers or retailers at wholesale market. They usually have their own transport companies and have offices and staff at wholesale markets of big cities, equipped with all communication facilities. They maintain contacts with market committees, market associations, wholesalers and retailers and influence the prices in fruit markets of Pakistan (Ali, 2004).WholesalerWholesalers perform their business in wholesale or terminal markets of the country. They do business with large quantities of farm products and deal in several commodities like vegetables, fruits and other agricultural produ ce within interregional markets and also supply produce to processing industries, exporters, and retailers according to their demand. They maintain contacts with commission agents in wholesale markets and retailers in the local area. Wholesaler usually purchase fruit from the commission agents at open auction and sell in smaller quantities to the retailers and consumers. They mostly buy from the commission agents on a credit basis, and about one week after change that quantity, they pay the commission agents. Some wholesalers also act as commission agents (Khushk Smith, 1996 Ali, 2004 Zulfiqar, Khan, Bashir, 2005).RetailerMarket activities come to end with the retailers. They buy and sell small quantities according to the demand of consumers in the area. A small number of fruit retailers occupy small shops in the main fruit markets or in the town. Moreover, a number of retailers are found standing at focal places of a town, particularly railway stations, bus stands, locality of courts, schools, and hospitals. Among fruit retailers there is a high degree of competition. Retailers buy fruit from the wholesalers on a 24-48 time of day credit basis (Khushk Smith, 1996 Ali, 2004 Zulfiqar, Khan, Bashir, 2005).Importance of Market functionaries / IntermediariesAlthough a heavy literature is found on exploitative behavior of market intermediaries towards agriculture producers, especially in developing countries such as Pandit et al. (2005) Aujla et al. (2007), Khushk and Smith (1996) and many others, yet their role cannot be ignored (Dixie, 2005). It is often mis-understood how important traders are in taking agriculture produce from farm to the market. Their importance becomes more critical in case of fruits which are highly destructible in nature and need quick supply. The more dynamic the fruit trading sector leads greater competition among traders and greater volumes of produce taken out of rural farm lands resulting, ultimately, high income returns to th e farming community. Farmers selling directly to consumers does mean higher profits but also greater risks. Market traders accept that risk such as non-payments, price decrease and marketing and handling losses (Khushk Smith, 1996). Therefore the intermediaries should be encouraged, not criticized (Dixie, 2005 Pokhrel, 2005).Marketing Margin AnalysisMarketing margins or farm-to-retail price spread are some functions of differences between farm-gate prices and retail prices, intended to measure the opportunity cost of providing marketing services including buying, grading, packing, transporting, storage, and processing (Khushk Smith, 1996 Wohlgenant, 2001). The prices paid to the rural sellers at farm-gate are much lower. But as the product moves along the production-marketing chain, its price increases such that the retailers achieve the highest price (see Figure 2.3).The farm-to-retail price spread of fruits in Pakistan is con